Agricultural Extension And Rural Development Pdf
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Agricultural extension also known as agricultural advisory services plays a crucial role in boosting agricultural productivity, increasing food security, improving rural livelihoods, and promoting agriculture as an engine of pro-poor economic growth. IFPRI has developed a framework for designing extension systems and analyzing their impact and has several research programs studying extension projects. Featured Publications.
- AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT HANDOUT
- Extension Education for Agricultural and Social Improvement
- Agricultural Extension
- Agricultural extension, rural development and the food security challenge.
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AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT HANDOUT
Does extension have a role to play in rural development? Private Bag X 28, Chuenespoort, Tel: Fax: Cell: E-mail: Zwaneme gmail. This paper seeks to justify that extension has a role to play in rural development. The author has adopted a desktop study in which literature was reviewed and synthesized in order to establish facts about rural development and extension. The author discusses the meanings of agricultural extension and rural development.
He locates the place of extension in rural development where it can make its contribution. Furthermore he identifies five specific factors that are central to extension in rural development. Some of the factors include: food security, conservation of natural resources, dissemination of useful information, sustainability of projects, and empowerment of farming groups.
The paper concludes by suggesting some recommendations on how extension can better be utilized in order to achieve sustained results in rural development. The recommended factors include: establishment of rural development Centres, developing farmer leadership, establishment of agricultural development teams, collaborating with other role players and developing a new extension agenda.
The recommendations are broad and further research is recommended to specifically look into other factors that may have a serious impact in farmer's lives such as sustainability, increasing farmer income and positive perceptions. Key words: Rural development, Extension. Studies have shown that throughout human history, civilizations have depended on agriculture for their survival, however as soon as they neglected their land resources -agriculture, industries collapsed and the civilizations also collapsed Nortjie, The ancient civilizations often cited as the best example include Mesopotamia, Mayan and the Roman Empire.
In Africa, the classical examples include Zimbabwe and Guinea. Both countries were exporter of food to other countries in Africa, but when they neglected their agriculture at some point, they were no longer able to produce sufficient food for export. The United States of America USA is one of the best known examples of a nation that has in recent times become a world super power on the basis of a strong agriculture, and as a result has developed its strong industrial economic and political development Nortjie, The problem investigated in this paper is that there is a serious doubt whether agricultural extension has a role to play in Rural Development.
Experience in other countries for example some policy makers tend to lose sight and treat extension officers and the community development workers on the same basis in terms of performance of certain tasks such as the distribution of credit and production inputs Swanson, If an extension officer resist helping on what he feels 'it is like promoting dependency', the community report the official through the channels available to them. In Limpopo they report such an officer to the Member of the Executive Council MEC and some political councillors do the same where they tend to expect extension officers to perform odd jobs such as delivering fertilizers and taking part in meetings reflecting towards political tendency.
It can be seen from the cited experiences that unless the tasks are clearly defined, extension officers will not know exactly what to expect in order to achieve. It is argued that since agriculture is one of the "movers" of development, Bembridge, , agricultural extension is considered as a special branch of rural extension dealing with several economic and social aspects of farming. The expected objectives of the study are discussed in the next section. This paper is guided by the following objectives:.
Rural Development has been propagated in the world with different forms. According to some authors it emerged in the 's under the banner of community development Bembridge, and in the 's it surfaced as "basic needs" and in the 's it resurfaced as 'sustainable development' yet focusing to the people as beneficiaries.
Based on these developments the author has adopted a desktop study in order to establish the facts about rural development. These facts would be synthesized to make broad recommendations that could be followed by a further research to narrow those broad recommendations. Agriculture is one of the interventions which have a potential in improving the standard of living of people, for example, Governments use extension programmes to reach out to farmers Van den Ban and Hawkins, Is extension synonymous with rural development?
What follows is an attempt to explain the meaning of these two concepts. Definition of the concepts.
There are three dimensions of extension which the researcher presents. The first dimension considers extension in terms of agricultural performance. Extension is viewed only in terms of improving production and profitability of farmers.
The second dimension equates extension to rural community development. Under this dimension extension is viewed as serving to advance rural communities including the improvement of their agricultural development tasks. The third dimension equates extension to comprehensive non-formal community education. Extension is viewed as a provider of non-formal agriculturally related continued education for multiple audiences such as farmers, spouses, youth rural community and urban horticulturists Rivera, One definition of agricultural extension widely used in the FAO publications sees extension as a service or system which assists farm people, through educational procedures, in improving farming methods and techniques, increasing production efficiency and income, bettering their levels of living and lifting the social and educational standards of rural life Swanson, The definition focuses on encouraging and involving rural people's own organizations, enhancing individual and collective self-reliance, and environmental issues.
From the analysis it is clear that extension is different from rural development. The question is; what is rural development? The concept is discussed as follows:. There are different understandings attached to the concept of rural development. According to Schutjer, rural development is more than agricultural development. Observations about rural development suggest that it is about enabling rural people to take control of their destiny, thereby dealing effectively with rural poverty through the optimal use and management of natural resources.
It is a participatory process through which rural people learn over time, through their own experiences and initiatives, how to adapt their indigenous knowledge to their changing world Ministry of Rural Development and Land Reform, Rural development has evolved from being "a statement of framework of development" into becoming "a policy instrument" known as the Reconstruction and Development Programme RDP.
From the foregoing discussion it is clear that rural development and extension are two different disciplines, what might be common could be the fact that both may need to be driven by people who understand their missions. Therefore the South African context of rural development presents an opportunity to all extension advisors to implement it effectively. The reasons are discussed in the next section. The place of Extension in Rural Development. Transformation processes in South Africa puts extension in a spot light for service delivery.
The CRDP has three major components. Extension has a big role to play within this component. The second component is Land Reform, which has the following sub programmes: Land tenure, Redistribution, Restitution and Strategic Land. Various provincial Departments of Agriculture are currently involved through their collaborative efforts with different stake holders. For example Limpopo Department of Agriculture LDA had seconded agricultural technicians to Land's Claim Commission for a period of five years in order to assist in the processing of outstanding claims.
Extension will have little direct contribution, but can have an indirect influence for example in economic infrastructure such as markets can serve as a link between the other two components of CRDP when farmers sell their products.
Specific areas of intervention by extension are discussed hereunder. Areas of contribution by Extension. The perceived major objectives of rural development according to Schutjer, include the non-economic goals, such as "quality of life," which give primacy to environmental quality. Extensionists can make significant contribution in rural development provided they are guided by specific policy. The study has found five critical areas in which extension can play a role and are discussed next.
Food security is often defined in terms of food availability, food access and food utilization USAID as cited by Rivera and Qamar Food availability is achieved when sufficient quantities of food are consistently available to all individuals within a country. Such food can be supplied through household production, other domestic outputs, commercial imports or food assistance.
Food access is ensured when households and all individuals within them have adequate resources to obtain appropriate food for a nutritional diet. Access depends upon income available to the household, on the distribution of income within the household and on the price of food. Food utilization is the proper biological use of food, requiring a diet providing sufficient energy and essential nutrients, potable water, and adequate sanitation.
Effective food utilization depends on knowledge within the household of food storage and processing techniques. Successful food security and poverty-oriented programmes do not only assist poor rural populations to produce more and diversified products, but to produce a surplus that can be marketed and thereby generate income for the purposes of improving quality of life through improved diet and nutrition.
Extensionists have received training which combines technical knowledge and communication skills. They can apply this knowledge to help in improving farming, farm yields and thereby reduce poverty Neuchatel Group, Farmers and communities have little urge to conserve resources unless they are forced by legislation.
The inception of land care programmes are the best examples. In the past rangers were used to enforce compliance, experience shows that as soon as a gap exist in the implementation of law enforcement people and farmers go back to misuse of the natural resources.
An extensionist does not use force but known strategies of persuasion to assist farmers and communities to conserve natural resources. There are different institutions that can be accessed to learn more about best practices in natural resource conservation in Africa and in the world, for example, the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa FARA has developed a website of best practices FAO, Dissemination of useful Information. Extensionists usually persuade farmers to adopt new practices mainly because they have access to research and its results.
They have received proper training that can be executed to benefit the farming communities. Extensionists should access different information needed by farmers in terms of production, cultural practices, markets and marketing. Other priority information may have to be identified for dissemination.
Sustainability of projects. It is quite a challenge to see many government projects that are not sustainable as soon as the government withdraws its support. They then become "white elephants". Experience has shown that the problem is linked to ownership and group dynamics.
Issues of ownership are best understood once farmer groups are trained. Extensionists are well trained to deal with human behaviour.
Once they apply their knowledge, projects will have a better chance of becoming sustainable. Empowerment of the farming groups. The perceived objectives of rural development according to Schutjer, 1 include the following: 1 growth in local domestic output-income generation, 2 employment creation, and 3 improvement in income distribution within a limited geographical region.
Extension Education for Agricultural and Social Improvement
Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of 'extension' now encompasses a wider range of communication and learning activities organized for rural people by educators from different disciplines, including agriculture , agricultural marketing , health , and business studies. Extension practitioners can be found throughout the world, usually working for government agencies. They are represented by several professional organizations, networks and extension journals. Agricultural extension agencies in developing countries receive large amounts of support from international development organizations such as the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Modern extension began in Dublin , Ireland in with Lord Clarendon's itinerant instructors during the great famine. The term was later adopted in the United States of America, while in Britain it was replaced with "advisory service" in the 20th century.
RURAL DEVELOPMENT. Abstract. Agriculture and agricultural extension service are facing numerous problems in present times when good solutions are not.
The word Extension is derived from the Latin words, Ex- means out and Tensio- means stretch or spread. Education is the process of bringing desirable changes in human behavior in terms of knowledge, skill and attitude. In a nutshell, education is a process in which human behavior is modified or changed towards a desirable end. Even after school and college education people need education to solve many practical problems during their day-to-day life. Hence, extension education is required to provide solution to many of the practical problems of people at their door steps.
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Agricultural extension, rural development and the food security challenge.
Metrics details. Agriculture is the mainstay of Ethiopian economy involving major source of employment and gross national product. By African, standard rural development programme has long history in Ethiopia. It has also enjoyed a considerable attention by the government. However, the expected level was not achieved. The main objective of this review is to indicate the policy gaps in terms of access, utilization and coverage of rural development policy programme packages by different segments of people in rural areas.
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Agricultural extension is «a service or system which assists farm people, through educational procedures, in improving farming methods and techniques.
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