Islam Faith And History Pdf
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An introductory treatise on Islamic beliefs, laws and ethics as well as the early history of the faith in fifty lessons.
Islam and other religions
The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic and cultural developments of Islamic civilization. Most historians  accept that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE. Muslims regard Islam as a return to the original faith of the prophets , such as Jesus , Solomon , David , Moses , Abraham , Noah and Adam , with the submission islam to the will of God.
According to tradition, in CE , the Islamic Prophet Muhammad began receiving what Muslims consider to be divine revelations, calling for submission to the one God, the expectation of the imminent Last Judgement, and caring for the poor and needy. With Muhammad's death in , disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community during the Rashidun Caliphate. By the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east.
Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyads and Abbasid Caliphate in the Middle East and later in Spain and Southern Italy , Fatimids , Seljuks , Ayyubids and Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world. Highly persianized empires built by the Samanids , Ghaznavids , Ghurids made significant developments. The Islamic Golden Age gave rise to many centers of culture and science and produced notable polymaths , astronomers , mathematicians , physicians and philosophers during the Middle Ages.
By the early 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate conquered the northern Indian subcontinent , while Turkic dynasties like the Sultanate of Rum and Artuqids conquered much of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire throughout the 11th and 12th centuries.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, destructive Mongol invasions and those of Tamerlane Timur from the East, along with the loss of population in the Black Death , greatly weakened the traditional centers of the Muslim world, stretching from Persia to Egypt , but saw the emergence of the Timurid Renaissance and major global economic powers such as West Africa 's Mali Empire and South Asia 's Bengal Sultanate.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the Islamic world fell under the influence or direct control of European " Great Powers. The Oil boom stabilized the Arab states of the Persian Gulf , making them the world's largest oil producers and exporters, which focus on free trade and tourism. The following timeline can serve as a rough visual guide to the most important polities in the Islamic world prior to the First World War.
It is necessarily an approximation, since rule over some regions was sometimes divided among different centers of power, and authority in larger polities was often distributed among several dynasties. For example, during the later stages of the Abbasid Caliphate , even the capital city of Baghdad was effectively ruled by other dynasties such as the Buyyids and the Seljuks , while the Ottomans commonly delegated executive authority over outlying provinces to local potentates, such as the Deys of Algiers, the Beys of Tunis , and the Mamluks of Iraq.
The study of the earliest periods in Islamic history is made difficult by a lack of sources. Differing views about how to deal with the available sources has led to the development of four different approaches to the history of early Islam. All four methods have some level of support today. Nowadays, the popularity of the different methods employed varies on the scope of the works under consideration. For overview treatments of the history of early Islam, the descriptive approach is more popular.
For scholars who look at the beginnings of Islam in depth, the source critical and tradition critical methods are more often followed. After the 8th century, the quality of sources improves. In particular, the sources covering the Sasanian realm of influence in the 6th century are poor, while the sources for Byzantine areas at the time are of a respectable quality, and complemented by Syriac Christian sources for Syria and Iraq.
Islam arose within the context of Late Antiquity. According to tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca around the year Most likely Muhammad was "intimately aware of Jewish belief and practices," and acquainted with the Hanif. These inspirations urged him to proclaim a strict monotheistic faith , as the final expression of the prophetic tradition earlier codified in Judaism and Christianity; to warn his compatriots of the impending Judgement Day ; and to castigate social injustices of his city.
In Yathrib, where he was accepted as an arbitrator among the different communities of the city under the terms of the Constitution of Medina , Muhammad began to lay the foundations of the new Islamic society, with the help of new Quranic verses which provided guidance on matters of law and religious observance.
These leaders are known as the " Rashidun " or "rightly guided" Caliphs in Sunni Islam. They oversaw the initial phase of the Muslim conquests , advancing through Persia , Levant , Egypt , and North Africa.
Although the office of caliph retained an aura of religious authority, it laid no claim to prophecy. Umar improved administration of the fledgling empire, ordering improvement of irrigation networks and playing a role in foundation of cities like Basra.
To be close to the poor, he lived in a simple mud hut without doors and walked the streets every evening. After consulting with the poor, Umar established the Bayt al-mal ,    a welfare institution for the Muslim and non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled.
The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced child benefit for the children and pensions for the elderly. Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, who lived as religious minorities and were taxed while Muslims paid "Zakat" to finance the Byzantine—Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests.
Since the Constitution of Medina , drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad , the Jews and the Christians continued to use their own laws and had their own judges. In , Umar appointed Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan as the governor of Syria after the previous governor died in a plague along with 25, other people.
Early Muslim armies stayed in encampments away from cities because Umar feared that they may get attracted to wealth and luxury, moving away from the worship of God, accumulating wealth and establishing dynasties. When Umar was assassinated in , Uthman ibn Affan second cousin and twice son-in-law of Muhammad became the next caliph. As the Arabic language is written without vowels, speakers of different Arabic dialects and other languages recited the Quran with phonetic variations that could alter the meaning of the text.
When Uthman ibn Affan became aware of this, he ordered a standard copy of the Quran to be prepared. Begun during his reign, the compilation of the Quran was finished some time between and , and copies were sent out to the different centers of the expanding Islamic empire. After Muhammad's death, the old tribal differences between the Arabs started to resurface.
Each wanted the capital of the newly established Islamic State to be in their area. As Uthman ibn Affan became very old, Marwan I , a relative of Muawiyah, slipped into the vacuum, becoming his secretary and slowly assuming more control. When Uthman was assassinated in , Ali ibn Abi Talib , a cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, assumed the position of caliph and moved the capital to Kufa in Iraq.
Muawiyah I, the governor of Syria, and Marwan I demanded arrest of the culprits. Marwan I manipulated every one and created conflict, which resulted in the first civil war the "First Fitna". Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in Six months later in , in the interest of peace, Ali's son Hasan , made a peace treaty with Muawiyah I. In the Hasan—Muawiya treaty , Hasan ibn Ali handed over power to Muawiya on the condition that he would be just to the people and not establish a dynasty after his death.
He was killed in the Battle of Karbala the same year, in an event still mourned by Shia on the Day of Ashura. In , Arab armies conquered Kabul ,  and in pushed into the Maghreb. The Umayyad dynasty or Ommiads , whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams , the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph, ruled from to Although the Umayyad family came from the city of Mecca , Damascus was the capital.
Muawiyah I moved his capital to Damascus from Medina , which led to profound changes in the empire. In the same way, at a later date, the transfer of the Caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad marked the accession of a new family to power.
As the state grew, the state expenses increased. Additionally the Bayt al-mal and the Welfare State expenses to assist the Muslim and the non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled, increased, the Umayyads asked the new converts mawali to continue paying the poll tax.
The Umayyad rule, with its wealth and luxury also seemed at odds with the Islamic message preached by Muhammad. The Bayt al-mal, the Welfare State then continued under the Abbasids. Muawiyah beautified Damascus, and developed a court to rival that of Constantinople. He expanded the frontiers of the empire, reaching the edge of Constantinople at one point, though the Byzantines drove him back and he was unable to hold any territory in Anatolia.
Sunni Muslims credit him with saving the fledgling Muslim nation from post- civil war anarchy. However, Shia Muslims accuse him of instigating the war, weakening the Muslim nation by dividing the Ummah , fabricating self-aggrandizing heresies  slandering the Prophet 's family  and even selling his Muslim critics into slavery in the Byzantine empire.
According to Shi'a doctrine, this was a clear violation of the treaty he made with Hasan ibn Ali. Uqba won battles against the Berbers and Byzantines. Uqba and all his men died fighting. The Berbers attacked and drove Muslims from north Africa for a period. Under the rule of Yazid I , some Muslims in Kufa began to think that if Husayn ibn Ali the descendant of Muhammad was their ruler, he would have been more just.
He was invited to Kufa but was later betrayed and killed. Imam Husain's son, Imam Ali ibn Husain , was imprisoned along with Husain's sister and other ladies left in Karbala war. Due to opposition by public they were later released and allowed to go to their native place Medina. One Imam after another continued in the generation of Imam Husain but they were opposed by the Caliphs of the day as their rivals till Imam Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah came in power as first Caliph of Fatimid in North Africa when Caliphate and Imamate came to same person again after Imam Ali.
This would ease in the reign of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan , a well-educated and capable ruler. Despite the many political problems that impeded his rule, all important records were translated into Arabic. In his reign, a currency for the Muslim world was minted. The Byzantines were decisively defeated by the Caliph after the defection of a large contingent of Slavs.
The Islamic currency was then made the exclusive currency in the Muslim world. Al-Walid I began the next stage of Islamic conquests. Under him the early Islamic empire reached its farthest extent. He reconquered parts of Egypt from the Byzantine Empire and moved on into Carthage and across to the west of North Africa. Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf played a crucial role in the organization and selection of military commanders.
Al-Walid paid great attention to the expansion of an organized military, building the strongest navy in the Umayyad era. His reign is considered to be the apex of Islamic power. Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik was hailed as caliph the day al-Walid died.
He appointed Yazid ibn al-Muhallab governor of Mesopotamia. Sulayman ordered the arrest and execution of the family of al-Hajjaj , one of two prominent leaders the other was Qutayba ibn Muslim who had supported the succession of al-Walid's son Yazid, rather than Sulayman. Al-Hajjaj had predeceased al-Walid, so he posed no threat. Qutaibah renounced allegiance to Sulayman, though his troops rejected his appeal to revolt.
They killed him and sent his head to Sulayman. Sulayman did not move to Damascus on becoming Caliph, remaining in Ramla. The intervention of Bulgaria on the Byzantine side proved decisive. The Muslims sustained heavy losses. Sulayman died suddenly in Yazid fought the Kharijites, with whom Umar had been negotiating, and killed the Kharijite leader Shawdhab.
The Five Pillars of Islam
Islam is the second largest religion in the world after Christianity, with about 1. Although its roots go back further, scholars typically date the creation of Islam to the 7th century, making it the youngest of the major world religions. Today, the faith is spreading rapidly throughout the world. Muslims believe he was the final prophet sent by God to reveal their faith to mankind. According to Islamic texts and tradition, an angel named Gabriel visited Muhammad in A.
A bold new religious history of the late antique and medieval Middle East that places ordinary Christians at the center of the story. In the second half of the first millennium CE, the Christian Middle East fractured irreparably into competing churches and Arabs conquered the region, setting in motion a process that would lead to its eventual conversion to Islam. What did it mean for Christian communities to break apart over theological disagreements that most people could not understand? How does our view of the rise of Islam change if we take seriously the fact that Muslims remained a demographic minority for much of the Middle Ages? In addressing these and other questions, Tannous provides a sweeping reinterpretation of the religious history of the medieval Middle East. This provocative book draws on a wealth of Greek, Syriac, and Arabic sources to recast these conquered lands as largely Christian ones whose growing Muslim populations are properly understood as converting away from and in competition with the non-Muslim communities around them. By shifting the focus from intellectual elites to everyday Christian believers, Tannous provides a more illuminating understanding of the gradual transition to the majority Islamic world of the medieval Middle East.
Over the centuries of Islamic history , Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars , and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions. Attitudes have varied according to time, place and circumstance. The Qur'an distinguishes between the monotheistic People of the Book ahl al-kitab , i. Jews , Christians , Sabians and others on the one hand and polytheists or idolaters on the other hand'. One example is that Muslim males are allowed to marry a Christian or Jew, but not a polytheist.
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The History of Islam
Islam , major world religion promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century ce. Allah is viewed as the sole God—creator, sustainer, and restorer of the world. Retaining its emphasis on an uncompromising monotheism and a strict adherence to certain essential religious practices, the religion taught by Muhammad to a small group of followers spread rapidly through the Middle East to Africa, Europe , the Indian subcontinent, the Malay Peninsula , and China. By the early 21st century there were more than 1. Although many sectarian movements have arisen within Islam, all Muslims are bound by a common faith and a sense of belonging to a single community.
Islam , major world religion promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century ce. Allah is viewed as the sole God—creator, sustainer, and restorer of the world. Retaining its emphasis on an uncompromising monotheism and a strict adherence to certain essential religious practices, the religion taught by Muhammad to a small group of followers spread rapidly through the Middle East to Africa, Europe , the Indian subcontinent, the Malay Peninsula , and China.