Chemistry Of Fossil Fuels And Biofuels Pdf
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- Frontiers for Young Minds
- Biofuels, explained
- U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
- Harold H. Schobert: Chemistry of Fossil Fuels and Biofuels
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms , containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis  that release energy in combustion. Fossil fuels range from volatile materials with low carbon -to- hydrogen ratios like methane , to liquids like petroleum , to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields alone, associated with oil , or in the form of methane clathrates.
Frontiers for Young Minds
Biomass and biofuels made from biomass are alternative energy sources to fossil fuels—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Burning either fossil fuels or biomass releases carbon dioxide CO2 , a greenhouse gas. However, the plants that are the source of biomass for energy capture almost the same amount of CO2 through photosynthesis while growing as is released when biomass is burned, which can make biomass a carbon-neutral energy source. Using wood, wood pellets, and charcoal for heating and cooking can replace fossil fuels and may result in lower CO2 emissions overall. Wood can be harvested from forests, from woodlots that have to be thinned, or from urban trees that fall down or have to be cut down.
Biofuels have been around longer than cars have, but cheap gasoline and diesel have long kept them on the fringe. Spikes in oil prices, and now global efforts to stave off the worst effects of climate change , have lent new urgency to the search for clean, renewable fuels. Our road travel, flights, and shipping account for nearly a quarter of the world's greenhouse gas emissions, and transportation today remains heavily dependent on fossil fuels. The idea behind biofuel is to replace traditional fuels with those made from plant material or other feedstocks that are renewable. But the concept of using farmland to produce fuel instead of food comes with its own challenges, and solutions that rely on waste or other feedstocks haven't yet been able to compete on price and scale with conventional fuels.
Alternative fuels , known as non-conventional and advanced fuels , are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels , other than conventional fuels like; fossil fuels petroleum oil , coal , and natural gas , as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium , as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors. Some well-known alternative fuels include bio-diesel , bio-alcohol methanol , ethanol , butane , refuse-derived fuel , chemically stored electricity batteries and fuel cells , hydrogen , non-fossil methane , non-fossil natural gas , vegetable oil , propane and other biomass sources. A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work. The main purpose of fuel is to store energy, which should be in a stable form and can be easily transported to the place of use. Almost all fuels are chemical fuels. The user employs this fuel to generate heat or perform mechanical work, such as powering an engine.
As energy needs outstripped supplies, we began to burn fossil fuels. This transition allowed our civilization to modernize rapidly, but it came with heavy costs including climate change. Today, scientists and engineers are taking another look at biofuels as a source of energy to fuel our ever-increasing consumption. If you turn on the news or read about current events, you will likely find many stories about climate change. Most of them read the same way:. The world faces a crisis. Climate change is altering our planet in numerous and highly undesirable ways.
Fossil fuels include coal , petroleum , natural gas , oil shales , bitumens , tar sands , and heavy oils. All contain carbon and were formed as a result of geologic processes acting on the remains of organic matter produced by photosynthesis , a process that began in the Archean Eon 4. Most carbonaceous material occurring before the Devonian Period All fossil fuels can be burned in air or with oxygen derived from air to provide heat. This heat may be employed directly, as in the case of home furnaces, or used to produce steam to drive generators that can supply electricity. In still other cases—for example, gas turbines used in jet aircraft—the heat yielded by burning a fossil fuel serves to increase both the pressure and the temperature of the combustion products to furnish motive power. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain in the second half of the 18th century, fossil fuels have been consumed at an ever-increasing rate.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
When you ride the bus to school in the morning, your journey is probably powered by diesel or gasoline, which is both made from petroleum. Fossil fuels like petroleum, natural gas, and coal are taken from deep within the earth, and used to drive cars, heat buildings, and generate electricity. Petroleum can also be used to make petroleum-based chemicals petrochemicals , which are found in many everyday things like the soles of your shoes or the plastic cover of your school bus seat. The good thing about fossil fuels is that they are very energy dense, i. This means that fossil fuels are very good at powering cars and generating heat.
Стратмор стукнул кулаком по столу. - Я должен был знать. Да взять хотя бы его электронное имя. - Боже мой, Северная Дакота.
Дэвид привлек ее к себе, не ощущая тяжести.
Harold H. Schobert: Chemistry of Fossil Fuels and Biofuels
Он не знал, как зовут этого человека. - Deutscher, ja. Вы немец. Мужчина нерешительно кивнул. Беккер заговорил на чистейшем немецком: - Мне нужно с вами поговорить. Мужчина смотрел на него недовольно. - Was wollen Sie.
А у Росио. Капельки Росы. Лицо мужчины из мертвенно-бледного стало красным. - Вы знаете Капельку Росы? - Вытерев пот со лба рукавом халата, он собирался что-то сказать, но тут отворилась дверь в ванную. Мужчины оглянулись. В дверях стояла Росио Ева Гранада.
Не нужно интуиции, чтобы понять: никакая это не диагностика. Он решительно подошел к терминалу и запустил весь набор программ системных оценок ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Твое сокровище в беде, коммандер, - пробормотал. - Не веришь моей интуиции. Так я тебе докажу. ГЛАВА 20 Городская больница располагалась в здании бывшей начальной школы и нисколько не была похожа на больницу. Длинное одноэтажное здание с огромными окнами и ветхое крыло, прилепившееся сзади.