Glossary Of Grammatical And Rhetorical Terms Pdf
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An acrostic is a piece of writing in which a particular set of letters—typically the first letter of each line, word, or paragraph—spells out a word or phrase with special significance to the text. An allegory is a work that conveys a hidden meaning—usually moral, spiritual, or political—through the use of symbolic characters and events.
Parallelism is a figure of speech in which two or more elements of a sentence or series of sentences have the same grammatical structure.
This glossary of linguistics, literary and grammatical terms is aimed to be helpful for writers, speakers, teachers and communicators of all sorts, in addition to students and teachers of the English language seeking:. There are very many different effects of written and spoken language. Most people know what an acronym is, or a palindrome. But what is a glottal stop? What is a tautology , or a gerund?
Materi 1 Metaphor
Action stories typically do not explore complex relationships between human beings or the subtleties of psychology and philosophy. The adage expresses a well-known and simple truth in a few words.
This last detail, a result of chance , is a key element of adventure; the stories usually involve a character who is brought to the adventure by chance, and chance usually plays a large role in the episodes of the story.
Also, adventures usually includes dangerous situations, narrow escapes, problems to be solved through intelligence and skill, exotic people and places, and brave deeds. An allegory is a story within a story. In alliteration, words that begin with the same sound are placed close together.
Although alliteration often involves repetition of letters, most importantly, it is a repetition of sounds. Allusion is basically a reference to something else.
Ambiguity is an idea or situation that can be understood in more than one way. This extends from ambiguous sentences which could mean one thing or another up to ambiguous storylines and ambiguous arguments.
Amplification involves extending a sentence or phrase in order to further explain, emphasize, or exaggerate certain points of a definition, description, or argument. An anagram is a type of word play in which the letters of a word or phrase are rearranged to create new words and phrases. An analogy is a literary technique in which two unrelated objects are compared for their shared qualities.
Unlike a simile or a metaphor, an analogy is not a figure of speech, though the three are often quite similar. Instead, analogies are strong rhetorical devices used to make rational arguments and support ideas by showing connections and comparisons between dissimilar things.
Anaphora is when a certain word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of clauses or sentences that follow each other. This repetition emphasizes the phrase while adding rhythm to the passage, making it more memorable and enjoyable to read. In a story, the antagonist is the opposite of the protagonist, or main character.
Typically, this is a villain of some kind, but not always! Anthimeria also known as antimeria is the usage of a word in a new grammatical form, most often the usage of a noun as a verb. It comes from the Greek words anthropo human and morph form. In literary analysis, an antithesis is a pair of statements or images in which the one reverses the other. The pair is written with similar grammatical structures to show more contrast. Antonomasia can range from lighthearted nicknames to epic names.
An aphorism is a short, concise statement of a general truth, insight, or good advice. In literature, aporia is an expression of insincere doubt. Appositives are noun phrases that follow or precede another noun, and give more information about it. An archaism is an old word or expression that is no longer used with its original meaning or is only used in specific studies or areas.
An argument is a work of persuasion. You use it to convince others to agree with your claim or viewpoint when they have doubts or disagree. Assonance is the repetition of the same or similar vowel sounds within words, phrases, or sentences. Asyndeton is skipping one or more conjunctions and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet which are usually used in a series of phrases.
Asyndeton is also known as asyndetism. An autobiography is a self-written life story. Bathos is text that abruptly turns from serious and poetic, to regular and silly.
Cacophony is considered the opposite of euphony which is the use of beautiful, melodious-sounding words. Caesura refers to a break or pause in the middle of a line of verse.
Catharsis applies to any form of art or media that makes us feel strong negative emotions, but that we are nonetheless drawn to — we may seek out art that creates these emotions because the experience purges the emotions from our system. A character is a person, animal, being, creature, or thing in a story. Writers use characters to perform the actions and speak dialogue, moving the story along a plot line. A story can have only one character protagonist and still be a complete story.
That is, you say one thing, and then you say something very similar, but flipped around. Often, climax is also when the main problem of the story is faced and solved by the main character or protagonist. Without coherence, a discussion may not make sense or may be difficult for the audience to follow. A connotation is a common feeling or association that a word has, in addition to its literal meaning the denotation.
Often, a series of words can have the same basic definitions, but completely different connotations—these are the emotions or meanings implied by a word, phrase, or thing.
Consonance is when the same consonant sound appears repeatedly in a line or sentence, creating a rhythmic effect. A conundrum is a difficult problem, one that is impossible or almost impossible to solve.
Comedy is a broad genre of film, television, and literature in which the goal is to make an audience laugh. It exists in every culture on earth though the specifics of comedy can be very different from one culture to another , and has always been an extremely popular genre of storytelling.
The denouement is the very end of a story, the part where all the different plotlines are finally tied up and all remaining questions answered. But it also has a narrower definition, called the dialogue form. The dialogue form is the use of a sustained dialogue to express an argument or idea. Diction refers to word choice and phrasing in any written or spoken text. Doppelganger is a twin or double of some character, usually in the form of an evil twin. They sometimes impersonate a main character or cause confusion among the love interests.
Drama has two very different meanings. In modern pop culture, it means a genre of film or television that deals with serious, often negative, emotions. Drama refers only to film and television, not novels or other purely written art forms. A dystopia is a horrible place where everything has gone wrong. Whereas utopia means a perfect paradise, dystopia means exactly the opposite. Whereas many poems end lines with the natural pause at the end of a phrase or with punctuation as end-stopped lines, enjambment ends a line in the middle of a phrase, allowing it to continue onto the next line as an enjambed line.
As a literary device, epiphany is the moment when a character is suddenly struck with a life-changing, enlightening revelation or realization which changes his or her perspective for the rest of the story. Epistrophe is also known as epiphora and antistrophe. Epitaphs can be poetic, sometimes written by poets or authors themselves before dying. An essay is a form of writing in paragraph form that uses informal language, although it can be written formally.
Essays may be written in first-person point of view I, ours, mine , but third-person people, he, she is preferable in most academic essays. Etymology is the investigation of word histories. Every word in every language has a unique origin and history; words can be born in many ways, and often their histories are quite adventurous and informative.
Etymology investigates and documents the lives mainly the origins of words. The exposition of a story is the first paragraph or paragraphs in which the characters, setting time and place , and basic information is introduced.
An extended metaphor is a metaphor that is developed in some detail by being used in more than one phrase, from a sentence or a paragraph, to encompassing an entire work. A fairy tale is a story, often intended for children, that features fanciful and wondrous characters such as elves, goblins, wizards, and even, but not necessarily, fairies. Fables use humanized animals, objects, or parts of nature as main characters, and are therefore considered to be a sub-genre of fantasy.
This can mean magic, the supernatural, alternate worlds, superheroes, monsters, fairies, magical creatures, mythological heroes—essentially, anything that an author can imagine outside of reality. A farce is a comedy in which everything is absolutely absurd. This usually involves some kind of deception or miscommunication. A figure of speech is a word or phrase using figurative language—language that has other meaning than its normal definition.
In other words, figures of speeches rely on implied or suggested meaning, rather than a dictionary definition.
Flashback is a device that moves an audience from the present moment in a chronological narrative to a scene in the past. Folklore is typically passed down by word of mouth, rather than being written in books.
The key here is that folklore has no author — it just emerges from the culture and is carried forward by constant retelling. Foreshadowing gives the audience hints or signs about the future.
Genres allow literary critics and students to classify compositions within the larger canon of literature. A haiku is a specific type of Japanese poem which has 17 syllables divided into three lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. Haikus or haiku are typically written on the subject of nature. They may be spelled the same or differently. In literature, horror is a genre of fiction whose purpose is to create feelings of fear, dread, repulsion, and terror in the audience—in other words, it develops an atmosphere of horror.
Hyperbaton is a figure of speech in which the typical, natural order of words is changed as certain words are moved out of order. It is used for emphasis or as a way of making a description more creative and humorous. An idiom is a phrase that conveys a figurative meaning different from the words used. Imagery is language used to create images in the mind of the reader. Jargon is the specific type of language used by a particular group or profession. It was exactly the right time to say or do a particular thing.
In modern rhetoric, it refers to making exactly the right statement at exactly the right moment. A limerick is a five-line poem with a strict rhyme scheme AABBA, lines 1,2, and 5 rhyme together, while lines 3 and 4 rhymes togther and a reasonably strict meter anapestic triameter for lines 1, 2, and 5; anapestic diameter for lines 3 and 4. Lingo is language or vocabulary that is specific to a certain subject, group of people, or region; including slang and jargon.
The term lingo is relatively vague—it can mean any type of nonstandard language, and varies between professions, age groups, sexes, nationalities, ethnicities, location, and so on.
In literature, any technique used to help the author achieve his or her purpose is called a literary device.
Glossary of Literary Terms
Action stories typically do not explore complex relationships between human beings or the subtleties of psychology and philosophy. The adage expresses a well-known and simple truth in a few words. This last detail, a result of chance , is a key element of adventure; the stories usually involve a character who is brought to the adventure by chance, and chance usually plays a large role in the episodes of the story. Also, adventures usually includes dangerous situations, narrow escapes, problems to be solved through intelligence and skill, exotic people and places, and brave deeds. An allegory is a story within a story. In alliteration, words that begin with the same sound are placed close together.
Glossary of Rhetorical Terms – AP English Language and Composition. Purpose: Clause – A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.
Glossary of rhetorical terms
This glossary came to us from our late colleague Ross Scaife, who encountered it during his graduate studies at the University of Texas. Ross, in turn, added some additional examples. Socrates : The fact is, as we said at the beginning of our discussion, that the aspiring speaker needs no knowledge of the truth about what is right or good In courts of justice no attention is paid whatever to the truth about such topics; all that matters is plausibility There are even some occasions when both prosecution and defence should positively suppress the facts in favor of probability, if the facts are improbable.
Faculty of English. Accentual Verse : Verse in which the metre depends upon counting a fixed number of stresses which are also known as 'accents' in a line, but which does not take account of unstressed syllables. The majority of Germanic poetry including Old English is of this type. Accentual-Syllabic Verse : The normal system of verse composition in England since the fourteen century, in which the metre depends upon counting both the number of stresses and the total number of syllables in any give line.
A structural metaphor is a metaphorical system in which one complex concept typically abstract is presented in terms of some other usually more concrete concept.
Literary Devices & Terms
Внезапно он почувствовал страх, которого никогда не испытывал. Беккер наклонил голову и открыл дроссель до конца. Веспа шла с предельной скоростью. Прикинув, что такси развивает миль восемьдесят - чуть ли не вдвое больше его скорости, - он сосредоточил все внимание на трех ангарах впереди.
На экране Танкадо рухнул на колени, по-прежнему прижимая руку к груди и так ни разу и не подняв глаз. Он был совсем один и умирал естественной смертью. - Странно, - удивленно заметил Смит. - Обычно травматическая капсула не убивает так. Иногда даже, если жертва внушительной комплекции, она не убивает вовсе. - У него было больное сердце, - сказал Фонтейн.
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Так и есть, примерно через каждые двадцать строк появляется произвольный набор четырех знаков. Сьюзан пробежала все их глазами. PFEE SESN RETM - Альфа-группы из четырех знаков, - задумчиво проговорила Сьюзан. - И частью программы они явно не являются. - Да бросьте вы это, - проворчал Джабба.
Господи Иисусе! - шумно вздохнул Хейл. - Похоже, Стратмор здорово промыл тебе мозги.
Ну конечно, - сказала она, все еще не в силах поверить в произошедшее. - Он хотел, чтобы вы восстановили его доброе имя. - Нет, - хмуро сказал Стратмор. - Танкадо потребовал ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Сьюзан почувствовала, что у нее сводит желудок. - А что. - Он говорит, что вручит победителю ключ. - Ключ. - В этом и заключается его замысел.