Animal Biodiversity And Conservation Pdf
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Wildlife conservation refers to the practice of protecting wild species and their habitats in order to maintain healthy wildlife species or populations and to restore, protect or enhance natural ecosystems.
The IUCN estimates that 27, species of the ones assessed are at risk for extinction. Expanding to all existing species, a UN report on biodiversity put this estimate even higher at a million species. It's also being acknowledged that an increasing number of ecosystems on Earth containing endangered species are disappearing.
To address these issues, there have been both national and international governmental efforts to preserve Earth's wildlife. Habitat destruction decreases the number of places wildlife can live in. Habitat fragmentation breaks up a continuous tract of habitat, often dividing large wildlife populations into several smaller ones. Key examples of human-induced habitat loss include deforestation, agricultural expansion , and urbanization.
Habitat destruction and fragmentation can increase the vulnerability of wildlife populations by reducing the space and resources available to them and by increasing the likelihood of conflict with humans. Moreover, destruction and fragmentation create smaller habitats. Smaller habitats support smaller populations, and smaller populations are more likely to go extinct. Overexploitation is the harvesting of animals and plants at a rate that's faster than the species's ability to recover. While often associated with Overfishing , overexploitation can apply to many groups including mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and plants.
Poaching for illegal wildlife trading is a major threat to certain species, particularly endangered ones whose status makes them economically valuable. Culling is the deliberate and selective killing of wildlife by governments for various purposes.
An example of this is shark culling , in which "shark control" programs in Queensland and New South Wales in Australia have killed thousands of sharks , as well as turtles , dolphins , whales , and other marine life. A wide range of pollutants negatively impact wildlife health. For some pollutants, simple exposure is enough to do damage e. For others, its through inhaling e. Pollutants affect different species in different ways so a pollutant that is bad for one might not affect another.
Humans are responsible for present-day climate change currently changing Earth's environmental conditions. It's related to some of the aforementioned threats to wildlife like habitat destruction and pollution. Rising temperatures, melting ice sheets, changes in precipitation patterns, severe droughts , more frequent heat waves , storm intensification, and rising sea levels are some of the effects of climate change.
Meanwhile, a warming climate, fluctuating precipitation, and changing weather patterns will impact species ranges. Overall, the effects of climate change increase stress on ecosystems, and species unable to cope with rapidly changing conditions will go extinct. It's estimated that, because of human activities, current species extinction rates are about times greater than the background extinction rate the 'normal' extinction rate that occurs without additional influence.
A UN report assessing global biodiversity extrapolated IUCN data to all species and estimated that 1 million species worldwide could face extinction. Deciding which species to conserve is a function of how close to extinction a species is, whether the species is crucial to the ecosystem it resides in, and how much we care about it.
The leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea is the largest turtle in the world, is the only turtle without a hard shell, and is endangered. The leatherback sea turtle faces numerous threats including being caught as bycatch , harvest of its eggs, loss of nesting habitats, and marine pollution.
Habitat conservation is the practice of protecting a habitat in order to protect the species within it. The latter is often true of species living in biodiversity hotspots , which are areas of the world with an exceptionally high concentration of endemic species species found nowhere else in the world. Habitat conservation is usually carried out by setting aside protected areas like national parks or nature reserves.
Even when an area isn't made into a park or reserve, it can still be monitored and maintained. The red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis is an endangered bird in the southeastern US. Today, it is a rare habitat as fires have become rare and many pine forests have been cut down for agriculture and is commonly found on land occupied by US military bases, where pine forests are kept for military training purposes and occasional bombings also for training set fires that maintain pine savannas.
In an effort to increase woodpecker numbers, artificial cavities essentially birdhouses planted within tree trunks were installed to give woodpeckers a place to live. An active effort is made by the US military and workers to maintain this rare habitat used by red-cockaded woodpeckers.
Conservation genetics studies genetic phenomena that impact the conservation of a species. Most conservation efforts focus on ensuring population growth but genetic diversity also greatly affect species survival. High genetic diversity increases survival because it means greater capacity to adapt to future environmental changes. Though not always the case, certain species are under threat because they have very low genetic diversity. As such, the best conservation action would be to restore their genetic diversity.
The Florida panther is a subspecies of puma specifically Puma concolor coryi that resides in the state of Florida and is currently endangered. In the early s, only a single population with individuals were left. The population had very low genetic diversity, was highly inbred, and suffered from several genetic issues including kinked tails, cardiac defects, and low fertility.
The goal was to increase genetic diversity by introducing genes from a different, unrelated puma population. By , the Florida panther population had tripled and offspring between Florida and Texas individuals had higher fertility and less genetic problems.
In , the US Fish and Wildlife Service estimated there were adult Florida panthers and in , there were signs that the population's range was expanding within Florida.
Monitoring of wildlife populations is an important part of conservation because it allows managers to gather information about the status of threatened species and to measure the effectiveness of management strategies. Monitoring can be local, regional, or range-wide, and can include one or many distinct populations. Metrics commonly gathered during monitoring include population numbers, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity, although many other metrics may be used.
Monitoring methods can be categorized as either "direct" or "indirect". Direct methods rely on directly seeing or hearing the animals, whereas indirect methods rely on "signs" that indicate the animals are present.
For terrestrial vertebrates, common direct monitoring methods include direct observation, mark-recapture , transects , and variable plot surveys. Indirect methods include track stations, fecal counts, food removal, open or closed burrow-opening counts, burrow counts, runaway counts, knockdown cards, snow tracks, or responses to audio calls. For large, terrestrial vertebrates, a popular method is to use camera traps for population estimation along with mark-recapture techniques.
This method has been used successfully with tigers, black bears, and numerous other species. Computer vision -based animal individual re-identification methods have been developed to automate such sight-resight calculations.
According to the National Wildlife Federation, wildlife conservation in the US gets a majority of its funding through appropriations from the federal budget, annual federal and state grants, and financial efforts from programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program , Wetlands Reserve Program and Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program. In the late s, as the public became dissatisfied with government environmental conservation efforts, people began supporting private sector conservation efforts which included several non-governmental organizations NGOs.
Many NGOs exist to actively promote, or be involved with, wildlife conservation:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Practice of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitats. Main article: Culling. Main article: Climate change. Main article: Leatherback sea turtle.
Main article: Red-cockaded woodpecker. Main article: Florida panther. Retrieved Convention on Biological Diversity. Sunderland, Massachusetts, U. National Wildlife Federation. The Environmental Literacy Council. Fish and Wildlife Service. World Wildlife Fund. Action for Dolphins. Archived from the original on Retrieved January 4, Retrieved September 4, National Geographic.
Retrieved 7 March Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals". US EPA. World Health Organization. Bibcode : Sci United Nations Sustainable Development. NOAA Fisheries. The Sacramento Bee. Bibcode : Natur. Wildlife Research. Ullas; Nichols, James D. Andrew May Fish and Wildlife. The Journal of Developing Areas. Natural resources. Arable peak farmland Degradation Landscape cityscape seascape soundscape viewshed Law property Management habitat conservation Minerals mining law sand peak rights Soil conservation fertility health resilience Use planning reserve.
Aquifer storage and recovery Drinking Fresh Groundwater pollution recharge remediation Hydrosphere Ice bergs glacial polar Irrigation huerta Rain harvesting Stormwater Surface water Wastewater reclaimed Watershed. Commons enclosure global land tragedy of Economics ecological land Ecosystem services Exploitation overexploitation Earth Overshoot Day Management adaptive Natural capital accounting Natural heritage Nature reserve Systems ecology Urban ecology Wilderness.
Diet composition of the Karpathos marsh frog Pelophylax cerigensis : what does the most endangered frog in Europe eat? Pafilis, G. Kapsalas, P. Lymberakis, D. Protopappas, K.
The identified species include , species of insects, , of flowering plants, , of animals, 68, of fungi, 30, of Protists (unicellular and.
To ensure the site displays correctly, please use a more modern browser, like Firefox or Google Chrome. Biodiversity is the sum of all the different species of animals, plants, fungi and microbial organisms living on Earth and the variety of habitats in which they live. Scientists estimate that more than 10 million different species inhabit Earth. Biodiversity underlies everything from food production to medical research. Humans use at least 40, species of plants and animals on a daily basis.
Wildlife conservation refers to the practice of protecting wild species and their habitats in order to maintain healthy wildlife species or populations and to restore, protect or enhance natural ecosystems. The IUCN estimates that 27, species of the ones assessed are at risk for extinction. Expanding to all existing species, a UN report on biodiversity put this estimate even higher at a million species.
Vector representations of words have been the driving force behind the majority of natural language processing tasks. This paper develops a novel approach for predicting the conservation status of animal species using custom generated scientific name embeddings. We use two different vector embeddings generated using representation learning on Wikipedia text and animal taxonomy data.
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