State And Trait Anxiety Inventory Pdf
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International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology publishes manuscripts with a basic and applied emphasis, involving both theoretical and experimental areas contributing to the advancement of Clinical and Health Psychology. Papers including psychopathology, psychotherapy, behaviour therapy, cognitive therapies, behavioural medicine, health psychology, community mental health, sexual health, child development, psychological assessment, psychophysiology, neuropsychology, etc. On exception the Journal publishes articles on science evaluation. The manuscripts with samples of university students whose use is not clearly justified in the objectives of the study will not be considered. The manuscripts submitted to International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology should not have been previously published, and should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere.
Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Metrics details. Validity and reliability of STAI was evaluated according to the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments COSMIN checklist by examining internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error, floor and ceiling, construct validity and content validity. In the cognitive interviews the content validity was evaluated to be very good.
Test-retest reliability was good with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0. The construct validity was good.
To our best knowledge, this is the first validation study of the Danish translation of STAI-state anxiety scale. This version of STAI demonstrates an acceptable reliability and validity when used in a gynecological setting. Peer Review reports. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide with , new cases and , deaths in [ 1 ]. Screening allows for detection and treatment of cervical precancerous lesion, thereby reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality.
In case of an abnormal screening test, a woman is referred to a gynecologist for colposcopy. Using a colposcope the cervix can be visualized and evaluated, allowing for targeted biopsies of visible lesions. A cone biopsy may subsequently be performed during the diagnostic workup or for treatment of histologically verified lesions.
The colposcopic examination carries a low risk of physical harm, such as bleeding and infection, but several studies have demonstrated that an abnormal screening test result and referral for colposcopy may be associated with increased levels of anxiety and discomfort [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ].
STAI has the advantage of measuring both trait anxiety, which is considered stable over time, and state anxiety, which is affected by stressful situations such as receiving an abnormal screening result [ 10 , 11 ]. However, to our best knowledge, the Danish version of STAI has not been validated, neither in a gynecological setting nor in any other Danish setting.
In this study we focused on the state scale of STAI as this scale has been used to measure anxiety over time and in relation to a given event. The study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Randers Regional Hospital, which is located in Central Denmark Region, one of five Danish regions governing primary and secondary health care services.
In Denmark, all citizens have access to free health care due to a tax-financed health care system [ 12 ]. This digital mail allows for communication of digital questionnaires directly to Danish citizens. A two-step validation study of the Danish version of STAI — state anxiety scale was conducted to evaluate how well the Danish translation of the scale performed in a gynecological outpatient clinic.
Cognitive interviews were conducted to test content validity and a questionnaire study was conducted to test reliability, floor and ceiling effect, and construct validity. Women were eligible for interview if they were referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Randers Regional Hospital or to a private gynecologist in Randers due to an abnormal screening test. Women were considered ineligible if they were unable to speak and understand Danish.
A convenience sample of women without an abnormal screening result was also interviewed. Individual interviews were conducted from 4th December to 13th December Eligible women were asked by the medical staff at the gynecological department or at the private gynecologist if they were interested in participating.
Patients agreeing to participate were instructed to fill out the questionnaire in a quiet room. Subsequently, they were interviewed by author LWG who is trained in qualitative research. Each interview was documented by taking notes during the interview. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached. Open-ended questions were asked about the following categories: understanding of the answer categories of the scales, time-consumption, layout of the questionnaire, the comprehensibility and relevance of the questions, and how they interpreted the questions.
Women exempted from the digital mail were excluded Fig. REDCap is a secure, web-based software platform designed to support data capture for research studies [ 14 , 15 ]. All questions in the questionnaire were mandatory to ensure no missing values.
The questionnaire was sent electronically through the digital mail to eligible women on 3rd January along with information on the validation process of the questionnaire, including the reason for test-retest, and an individual link to the electronic questionnaire. One week later a reminder was sent to non-responders.
Fourteen days after the first questionnaire was answered the same questionnaire was sent for a test-retest and 1 week later a reminder was sent to non-responders in the retest. The state anxiety score ranges from a minimum of 20 to a maximum of A low score indicates no or little anxiety while a higher score indicates a higher level of anxiety. All items of the state anxiety scale were found to belong to one uni-dimensional scale [ 16 ]. Although most were non-Hispanic white, the sample was heterogeneous with regard to educational level and age.
The mean score for working females aged 40—49 was SF is a health-related quality of life questionnaire consisting of 12 items divided into two sub-scales of physical and mental health.
The total score ranges from 0 to , where zero indicates the lowest level of health-related quality of life and indicates the highest level of health-related quality of life.
All statistical analyses were conducted on the initial test results and only measurement error and test-retest reliability included results from the retest. The test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient ICC using the two-way mixed-effect model with interaction for the absolute agreement between single scores [ 19 ].
ICC between 0. Measurement error was presented as the limits of agreement with the test-retest score, and differences were plotted against the average test-retest scores in a Bland-Altman plot [ 21 ]. Furthermore, we calculated the smallest detectable change SDC defined as 1. This equals the limits of agreement without the systematic error [ 22 ]. Floor and ceiling effects were illustrated in histograms for each item and the total score, and assessed as the number of participants achieving the highest or lowest possible score.
Since higher STAI-state anxiety scores indicate higher anxiety and lower SF scores indicate poor mental health, the association was expected to be negative. Further, it was hypothesized that there would be a moderate 0. Stata Statistical Software: Release Seven women with abnormal cervical screening results mean age The 12 women both with and without abnormal cervical screening results reported that the STAI- state anxiety scale was relevant and easy to interpret. They liked that it was short and yet comprehensive.
They found the response options to be appropriate and the wording was easy to understand. They did not suggest adding questions or changing the wording of the existing questions. From the individual interviews, content validity was evaluated to be very good. A total of women were eligible for validation of the reliability and validity of STAI-state anxiety scale. Of these, 98 women had electronic mail and were invited to participate mean age The overall mean score of STAI — state anxiety scale was The systematic difference between test and retest results was 0.
The SDC was In most items, all possible answers had been used, with a tendency towards lower scores in all items Fig. Total score ranged from 20 to 60 out of 80 possible, with lower scores being most common Fig.
Five 8. There was a difference of 0. Content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity was good. The mean score resembled norm data for working females, indicating that women with an abnormal cervical screening test within the last year are fairly unaffected by anxiety and mimics the background population.
This study benefitted from the two-step validation procedure, including both interviews and questionnaire. Even though Mind Garden, Inc. This may indicate that both the original concept of STAI-state anxiety and the Danish translation is accepted among Danish women. The main limitation of the study was the relatively low number of women included in the questionnaire study. However, we included all women referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Randers Regional Hospital from 1 January —7 December who had an abnormal screening test.
Due to the relatively small study population we were unable to conduct a factor analysis to confirm that the scale was unidimensional, and we therefore had to rely on the validation of the original scale. We were unable to determine the magnitude of this potential bias, as we only had information on age of non-respondents and because we have no information on women exempt from digital mail.
However, respondents had similar age distribution as those who did not respond. Still, the respondents may be a selected group in terms of health status, socioeconomic status, and other unknown factors.
This may partly explain that no one scores at the highest end of the scale if those most affected by anxiety did not participate in this study, which is always a dilemma in research. Further, the women were recruited based on a visit to a gynecologist within the past year which may further explain that the mean score resembled the mean score from norm data.
Our results showed a relatively high SDC for several reasons. Recruiting women at the day of their gynecology appointment and letting them fill out the questionnaire on that day might have yielded higher scores which could not be reproduced in a retest after 2 weeks, because STAI - state anxiety scale measures transitory anxiety. Furthermore, we did not include a stability anchor to exclude those who had changed over the 2 weeks between test and retest, and this probably resulted in an inflated measurement error.
Consequently, our SDC is probably too high and therefore has to be used and interpreted with caution. Another limitation was that the digital questionnaire was set up not to allow missing values which would normally be avoided in validation studies. However, since item formulation, relevance and acceptability were already tested in the interviews, it was decided to help the respondents not to miss any questions due to the digital setup where it may be difficult to visualize if all answers had been marked.
Even though STAI-state anxiety scale has been widely used for decades, we were only able to find few other validation studies, including a Greek [ 25 ], Japanese [ 26 ], Taiwan [ 27 ] and a Malaysian study [ 28 ]. None of the previous studies conducted confirmatory factor analysis to confirm uni-dimensionality of the state anxiety scale.
Thus, factor analysis is only reported in the STAI manual. In previous studies, a high internal consistency was found 0.
Our results are in line with a Swedish cohort study [ 5 ], where they measured STAI state anxiety in women referred for colposcopy. They found a mean STAI state anxiety score at the first colposcopy visit to be A reference group with healthy women participating in the cervical cancer screening program was found to have a mean state anxiety score at Similar results were seen in the study from J. Byrom et al. The Danish version of STAI-state anxiety scale demonstrates an acceptable reliability and validity when used in a gynecological setting.
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
The instrument is designed to be used with upper elementary or junior high school aged children and consists of two twenty-item scales. The measure is easy to read and can be administered verbally to younger children. Target population: 4th grade reading level and higher. Adminstration: For individual or group administration. The measure can be administered verbally to younger children.
However, the clinimetric attributes of the STAI under the statistical framework of the item-response theory IRT have not been fully elucidated within this population to date. The unidimensionality, Rasch model fit, scale targeting, separation reliability, differential item functioning, and response category utility of the STAI were statistically evaluated. A total of males, females patients without cognitive dysfunction were enrolled in our study. The original versions of the STAI-state and STAI-trait had acceptable separation reliability but lacked appropriate response category functioning, exhibited scale off-targeting, and several items demonstrated poor fit to the Rasch model. The response categories were reduced from four to three, and the rescored three-point TASI-trait demonstrated a marked improvement in clinimetric properties without a significant impact on unidimensionality and separation reliability.
It is edited by Dr. The Journal accepts works on basic as well applied research on any field of neurology. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two receding years. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published. Read more.
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults. Self-Evaluation Questionnaire. STAI Form Y-1 and Form Y- If any part of this Work (e.g., scoring, items, etc.) is put on an.
Metrics details. Validity and reliability of STAI was evaluated according to the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments COSMIN checklist by examining internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error, floor and ceiling, construct validity and content validity. In the cognitive interviews the content validity was evaluated to be very good. Test-retest reliability was good with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.
A study of measurement property including pregnant women aged between 15 and 45 years old, during the first period of labor and with term pregnancies. The correlation between the factors was calculated using the Pearson coefficient. The state of significance used for this analysis was 0.
Neurología (English Edition)
Превозмогая боль, он бежал через гардеробную. У алтаря кто-то кричал, за спиной у него слышались тяжелые шаги. Беккер толкнул двойную дверь и оказался в некотором подобии кабинета. Там было темно, но он разглядел дорогие восточные ковры и полированное красное дерево. На противоположной стене висело распятие в натуральную величину. Беккер остановился. Тупик.