Advantages And Disadvantages Of Democracy On African Coutries Pdf
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- One Party State: Is It Good or Bad for Governance?
- Dictatorship: Meaning, Its advantages and disadvantages
- Pros and cons of socialism
- Democracy in Africa
One Party State: Is It Good or Bad for Governance?
A wave of democratisation swept across the developing world in the s and s. However, only a limited number of countries that have undergone transitions have succeeded in establishing consolidated and functioning democratic regimes. Academics and policy-makers increasingly recognise that the holding of elections alone does not offer a cure for the deeper political and social problems besetting states in many developing countries.
In particular, the inability of many of these new democracies to meet the demands and basic needs of its citizens, including the promotion of economic development, has led to critical questions about their nature, quality, efficiency and sustainability over time.
There is an emerging consensus that structural factors — such as economic, social, and institutional conditions and legacies — impact on democratic consolidation. The building of such a culture will take a long time, and this is the main challenge hybrid regimes are facing today. The article identifies a number of characteristics common amongst hybrid regimes. In such regimes:. The article concludes by arguing that highlighting the challenges embedded in hybrid regimes does not imply that the risks of democratisation are not worth undertaking.
A deeper understanding of the problems that these regimes face is desirable because it provides a more realistic assessment of how democratic politics function in settings that remain undefined as well as a sobering appraisal of what these incipient and fragile democracies can be expected to achieve.
We have certainly not reached the end of history. On the other hand, it is also undeniable that some considerable gains have been made, at the very least in terms of an almost universal recognition of the primacy of democratic forms.
However imperfect, democracy is still better than the available alternatives. In such regimes: Populist politics, unaccountable leadership, and opaque decision-making processes are common. Shallow political participation outside elections and weak governmental accountability lead to a sense of collective public frustration about what democracy can deliver. Informal practices persist and often take precedence.
Personalised interests are paramount among public officials. The result is often clientelistic structures and high levels of corruption. State capacity remains weak, but at the same time a greater number of actors demand to be included in decision-making processes and expect better services and enhanced state accountability. This reinforces the prospects for instability. However, the emergence of hybrid regimes entails important risks as well.
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Dictatorship: Meaning, Its advantages and disadvantages
This may happen in two ways. Firstly, the activities of the opposition may be completely out lawed such that even the opposition leaders are not allowed to participate in elections. Secondly, the chances of the opposition to clinch power are thwarted by the unfavourable legal framework that is in place. Notably, in some cases a dominant political party that is in power only allows other less dominant parties who are allied to it to exist, while completely outlawing the opposition parties. According to Renske and Nijzink one party state could operate in an authoritarian context or even in some cases in multiparty framework set up.
Report Education. Download PDF. Press release. Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. This report describes how social class characteristics plausibly depress achievement and suggests policies to address them.
Pros and cons of socialism
Dictatorship or Totalitarianism is a situation where a single person or political party rules the entire country. It does not involve any electoral process for the appointment. It has fewer advantages than disadvantages. In a dictatorship, usually, there are very strict rules and punishment for even a small crime or violation of the law.
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Democracy in Africa
A wave of democratisation swept across the developing world in the s and s. However, only a limited number of countries that have undergone transitions have succeeded in establishing consolidated and functioning democratic regimes. Academics and policy-makers increasingly recognise that the holding of elections alone does not offer a cure for the deeper political and social problems besetting states in many developing countries. In particular, the inability of many of these new democracies to meet the demands and basic needs of its citizens, including the promotion of economic development, has led to critical questions about their nature, quality, efficiency and sustainability over time. There is an emerging consensus that structural factors — such as economic, social, and institutional conditions and legacies — impact on democratic consolidation.
A mixed economy is a system that combines characteristics of market , command and traditional economies. A mixed economy has three of the following characteristics of a market economy. First, it protects private property. Second, it allows the free market and the laws of supply and demand to determine prices. Third, it is driven by the motivation of the self-interest of individuals. It allows the federal government to safeguard its people and its market. The government has a large role in the military , international trade, and national transportation.
Democracy is a system of government where the entire population or eligible members of the state have the opportunity to vote on issues directly or send someone that they elect to make those decisions on their behalf. It is a governing structure where rule comes from the people instead of the military or state. Although it is an option that is usually associated with the United States, the Declaration of Independence makes no word of this option. The founding fathers of the United States actually feared the idea of democratic rule. James Madison mentioned in one of the federalist papers that this form of government could lead to confusion, instability, and injustice. They were scared that a popular government would eventually perish because that was happening more often than not everyone else in the world.
There are different forms of socialism but for this blog will use the form of democratic socialism advocated by Socialist parties in Western Europe. This brand of socialism believes in:. The pros all have statistical evidence to them and have actual examples. Democratic socialists do not hold Venezueal as model more Nordic countries and western Europe.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Africa's continuing reliance on foreign aid has increased the opportunities for bilateral and multilateral aid agencies to influence policy making in the region. The major donors have been meeting frequently in order to discuss development and debt problems and to devise aid strategies for African governments. In turn, foreign aid has increasingly been linked to a set of prescriptions for changes in both economic and political policies pursued by African governments.
Он называл ее… - Речь его стала невнятной и едва слышной. Медсестра была уже совсем близко и что-то кричала Беккеру по-испански, но он ничего не слышал. Его глаза не отрывались от губ Клушара.
Они в ловушке, шифровалка превратилась в узилище. Купол здания, похожий на спутник, находился в ста девяти ярдах от основного здания АНБ, и попасть туда можно было только через главный вход. Поскольку в шифровалке имелось автономное энергоснабжение, на главный распределительный щит, наверное, даже не поступил сигнал, что здесь произошла авария.
Наступил момент, которого она с ужасом ждала весь этот день. Немец лежит в постели и ждет. Самый крупный мужчина из всех, с кем ей приходилось иметь. Нарочито медленно она взяла из ведерка кубик льда и начала тереть им соски. Они сразу же затвердели.
На другой стороне авениды Изабеллы он сразу же увидел клинику с изображенным на крыше обычным красным крестом на белом поле. С того момента как полицейский доставил сюда канадца, прошло уже несколько часов. Перелом запястья, разбитая голова - скорее всего ему оказали помощь и давно выписали. Беккер все же надеялся, что в клинике осталась какая-то регистрационная запись - название гостиницы, где остановился пациент, номер телефона, по которому его можно найти.
- И в качестве милого побочного развлечения читать переписку простых граждан. - Мы не шпионим за простыми гражданами, и ты это отлично знаешь. ФБР имеет возможность прослушивать телефонные разговоры, но это вовсе не значит, что оно прослушивает .