History Of Probability And Statistics Pdf
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- Life and Work of Statisticians
- A Brief Look at the History of Probability and Statistics
- The Bernoullis and the origin of probability theory: Looking back after 300 years
Probability and statistics , the branches of mathematics concerned with the laws governing random events, including the collection, analysis , interpretation, and display of numerical data. Probability has its origin in the study of gambling and insurance in the 17th century, and it is now an indispensable tool of both social and natural sciences. Statistics may be said to have its origin in census counts taken thousands of years ago; as a distinct scientific discipline , however, it was developed in the early 19th century as the study of populations, economies, and moral actions and later in that century as the mathematical tool for analyzing such numbers. For technical information on these subjects, see probability theory and statistics. The modern mathematics of chance is usually dated to a correspondence between the French mathematicians Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal in
Life and Work of Statisticians
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Probability has a dual aspect: on the one hand the likelihood of hypotheses given the evidence for them, and on the other hand the behavior of stochastic processes such as the throwing of dice or coins. The study of the former is historically older in, for example, the law of evidence, while the mathematical treatment of dice began with the work of Cardano , Pascal and Fermat between the 16th and 17th century. Probability is distinguished from statistics ; see history of statistics. While statistics deals with data and inferences from it, stochastic probability deals with the stochastic random processes which lie behind data or outcomes. Probable and probability and their cognates in other modern languages derive from medieval learned Latin probabilis , deriving from Cicero and generally applied to an opinion to mean plausible or generally approved.
A Brief Look at the History of Probability and Statistics
Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability. Although there are several different probability interpretations , probability theory treats the concept in a rigorous mathematical manner by expressing it through a set of axioms. Typically these axioms formalise probability in terms of a probability space , which assigns a measure taking values between 0 and 1, termed the probability measure , to a set of outcomes called the sample space. Any specified subset of these outcomes is called an event. Central subjects in probability theory include discrete and continuous random variables , probability distributions , and stochastic processes , which provide mathematical abstractions of non-deterministic or uncertain processes or measured quantities that may either be single occurrences or evolve over time in a random fashion. Although it is not possible to perfectly predict random events, much can be said about their behavior.
The Bernoullis and the origin of probability theory: Looking back after 300 years
Indeed, these areas of mathematics are listed as topics for increased attention in the curriculum. Because of this emphasis, all teachers should become more aware of the historical development of these areas of mathematics so we can incorporate historical topics for motivation and extension of the content and so we can show the very human factor in the creation of mathematics. Let us, therefore, trace the development of the areas of probability and statistics. James Lightner professional interests are in geometry and the history of mathematics, as well as mathematics education.
The work of Pierre Simon, Marquis de Laplace, was more important to the early development of mathematical statistics than that of any other individual. This paper reviews both his major contributions to statistical theory, and his application of this theory to scientific problems. These applications paradoxically reveal both surprising depth and unexpected limitations to his understanding of statistical concepts.
It begins with a historical overview of the rise of statistics as a study, taking into account the founding of the Statistical Society of London, which became the Royal Statistical Society. It then examines the contributions of Galton, Pearson, and Fisher to the development of modern statistics. It also considers the role played by other figures in the conception of statistics as a branch of applied mathematics in Britain, including Harold Jeffreys. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.
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