Different Types Of Microscopes And Their Functions Pdf

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There are a number of different types of microscopes and each of them solves unique problems. Below you will find information on the five different types of microscopes along with the applications for each microscope and just who might use each instrument. Below each description of the microscope and its use is an image that was captured using that particular microscope. Stereo microscopes are used to look at a variety of samples that you would be able to hold in your hand. A stereo microscope provides a 3D image or "stereo" image and typically will provide magnification between 10x - 40x.

Two microscopes are better than one

Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using a microscope. Microscopic means being invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the method an instrument uses to interact with a sample and produce images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons through a sample in its optical path , by detecting photon emissions from a sample, or by scanning across and a short distance from the surface of a sample using a probe.

The most common microscope and the first to be invented is the optical microscope , which uses lenses to refract visible light that passed through a thinly sectioned sample to produce an observable image. Other major types of microscopes are the fluorescence microscope , electron microscope both the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope and various types of scanning probe microscopes. Although objects resembling lenses date back 4, years and there are Greek accounts of the optical properties of water-filled spheres 5th century BC followed by many centuries of writings on optics, the earliest known use of simple microscopes magnifying glasses dates back to the widespread use of lenses in eyeglasses in the 13th century.

The first detailed account of the microscopic anatomy of organic tissue based on the use of a microscope did not appear until , in Giambattista Odierna's L'occhio della mosca , or The Fly's Eye. The microscope was still largely a novelty until the s and s when naturalists in Italy, the Netherlands and England began using them to study biology. Italian scientist Marcello Malpighi , called the father of histology by some historians of biology, began his analysis of biological structures with the lungs.

The publication in of Robert Hooke 's Micrographia had a huge impact, largely because of its impressive illustrations. A significant contribution came from Antonie van Leeuwenhoek who achieved up to times magnification using a simple single lens microscope. He sandwiched a very small glass ball lens between the holes in two metal plates riveted together, and with an adjustable-by-screws needle attached to mount the specimen.

On 9 October , van Leeuwenhoek reported the discovery of micro-organisms. The performance of a light microscope depends on the quality and correct use of the condensor lens system to focus light on the specimen and the objective lens to capture the light from the specimen and form an image. This method of sample illumination produces even lighting and overcomes the limited contrast and resolution imposed by early techniques of sample illumination.

Further developments in sample illumination came from the discovery of phase contrast by Frits Zernike in , and differential interference contrast illumination by Georges Nomarski in ; both of which allow imaging of unstained, transparent samples. In the early 20th century a significant alternative to the light microscope was developed, an instrument that uses a beam of electrons rather than light to generate an image.

The German physicist, Ernst Ruska , working with electrical engineer Max Knoll , developed the first prototype electron microscope in , a transmission electron microscope TEM. The transmission electron microscope works on similar principles to an optical microscope but uses electrons in the place of light and electromagnets in the place of glass lenses. Use of electrons, instead of light, allows for much higher resolution. Development of the transmission electron microscope was quickly followed in by the development of the scanning electron microscope by Max Knoll.

Transmission electron microscopes became popular following the Second World War. Ernst Ruska, working at Siemens , developed the first commercial transmission electron microscope and, in the s, major scientific conferences on electron microscopy started being held.

In , the first commercial scanning electron microscope was developed by Professor Sir Charles Oatley and his postgraduate student Gary Stewart, and marketed by the Cambridge Instrument Company as the "Stereoscan". One of the latest discoveries made about using an electron microscope is the ability to identify a virus. They created a practical instrument, a scanning probe microscope from quantum tunnelling theory, that read very small forces exchanged between a probe and the surface of a sample.

The probe approaches the surface so closely that electrons can flow continuously between probe and sample, making a current from surface to probe. The microscope was not initially well received due to the complex nature of the underlying theoretical explanations. In Jerry Tersoff and D. This was closely followed in with functioning commercial instruments, and in with Gerd Binnig, Quate, and Gerber's invention of the atomic force microscope , then Binnig's and Rohrer's Nobel Prize in Physics for the SPM.

New types of scanning probe microscope have continued to be developed as the ability to machine ultra-fine probes and tips has advanced. The most recent developments in light microscope largely centre on the rise of fluorescence microscopy in biology. The rise of fluorescence microscopy drove the development of a major modern microscope design, the confocal microscope.

The principle was patented in by Marvin Minsky , although laser technology limited practical application of the technique. It was not until when Thomas and Christoph Cremer developed the first practical confocal laser scanning microscope and the technique rapidly gained popularity through the s.

Much current research in the early 21st century on optical microscope techniques is focused on development of superresolution analysis of fluorescently labelled samples. Structured illumination can improve resolution by around two to four times and techniques like stimulated emission depletion STED microscopy are approaching the resolution of electron microscopes.

X-ray microscopes are instruments that use electromagnetic radiation usually in the soft X-ray band to image objects. Technological advances in X-ray lens optics in the early s made the instrument a viable imaging choice. Currently research is being done to improve optics for hard X-rays which have greater penetrating power. Microscopes can be separated into several different classes. One grouping is based on what interacts with the sample to generate the image, i.

Alternatively, microscopes can be classified based on whether they analyze the sample via a scanning point confocal optical microscopes, scanning electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes or analyze the sample all at once wide field optical microscopes and transmission electron microscopes. Wide field optical microscopes and transmission electron microscopes both use the theory of lenses optics for light microscopes and electromagnet lenses for electron microscopes in order to magnify the image generated by the passage of a wave transmitted through the sample, or reflected by the sample.

The waves used are electromagnetic in optical microscopes or electron beams in electron microscopes. Resolution in these microscopes is limited by the wavelength of the radiation used to image the sample, where shorter wavelengths allow for a higher resolution. Scanning optical and electron microscopes, like the confocal microscope and scanning electron microscope, use lenses to focus a spot of light or electrons onto the sample then analyze the signals generated by the beam interacting with the sample.

The point is then scanned over the sample to analyze a rectangular region. Magnification of the image is achieved by displaying the data from scanning a physically small sample area on a relatively large screen.

These microscopes have the same resolution limit as wide field optical, probe, and electron microscopes. Scanning probe microscopes also analyze a single point in the sample and then scan the probe over a rectangular sample region to build up an image. As these microscopes do not use electromagnetic or electron radiation for imaging they are not subject to the same resolution limit as the optical and electron microscopes described above. The most common type of microscope and the first invented is the optical microscope.

This is an optical instrument containing one or more lenses producing an enlarged image of a sample placed in the focal plane. Optical microscopes have refractive glass occasionally plastic or quartz , to focus light on the eye or on to another light detector. Mirror-based optical microscopes operate in the same manner.

Typical magnification of a light microscope, assuming visible range light, is up to x with a theoretical resolution limit of around 0. Specialized techniques e. The use of shorter wavelengths of light, such as ultraviolet, is one way to improve the spatial resolution of the optical microscope, as are devices such as the near-field scanning optical microscope. Sarfus is a recent optical technique that increases the sensitivity of a standard optical microscope to a point where it is possible to directly visualize nanometric films down to 0.

The technique is based on the use of non-reflecting substrates for cross-polarized reflected light microscopy. Ultraviolet light enables the resolution of microscopic features as well as the imaging of samples that are transparent to the eye. Near infrared light can be used to visualize circuitry embedded in bonded silicon devices, since silicon is transparent in this region of wavelengths.

In fluorescence microscopy many wavelengths of light ranging from the ultraviolet to the visible can be used to cause samples to fluoresce , which allows viewing by eye or with specifically sensitive cameras.

Phase-contrast microscopy is an optical microscopy illumination technique in which small phase shifts in the light passing through a transparent specimen are converted into amplitude or contrast changes in the image. This microscope technique made it possible to study the cell cycle in live cells. The traditional optical microscope has more recently evolved into the digital microscope.

In addition to, or instead of, directly viewing the object through the eyepieces , a type of sensor similar to those used in a digital camera is used to obtain an image, which is then displayed on a computer monitor. Digital microscopy with very low light levels to avoid damage to vulnerable biological samples is available using sensitive photon-counting digital cameras.

It has been demonstrated that a light source providing pairs of entangled photons may minimize the risk of damage to the most light-sensitive samples. In this application of ghost imaging to photon-sparse microscopy, the sample is illuminated with infrared photons, each of which is spatially correlated with an entangled partner in the visible band for efficient imaging by a photon-counting camera.

The two major types of electron microscopes are transmission electron microscopes TEMs and scanning electron microscopes SEMs. In a TEM the electrons pass through the sample, analogous to basic optical microscopy. Therefore, the specimen do not necessarily need to be sectioned, but coating with a nanometric metal or carbon layer may be needed for nonconductive samples.

The different types of scanning probe microscopes arise from the many different types of interactions that occur when a small probe is scanned over and interacts with a specimen.

These interactions or modes can be recorded or mapped as function of location on the surface to form a characterization map. A near-field scanning optical microscope is similar to an AFM but its probe consists of a light source in an optical fiber covered with a tip that has usually an aperture for the light to pass through.

The microscope can capture either transmitted or reflected light to measure very localized optical properties of the surface, commonly of a biological specimen. Scanning tunneling microscopes have a metal tip with a single apical atom; the tip is attached to a tube through which a current flows. Scanning acoustic microscopes use sound waves to measure variations in acoustic impedance.

Similar to Sonar in principle, they are used for such jobs as detecting defects in the subsurfaces of materials including those found in integrated circuits. On February 4, , Australian engineers built a "quantum microscope" which provides unparalleled precision. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Scientific instrument. This article is about microscopes, the instruments, in general.

For light microscopes, see Optical microscope. For other uses, see Microscope disambiguation. This scientific article needs additional citations to secondary or tertiary sources such as review articles, monographs, or textbooks.

Please add such references to provide context and establish the relevance of any primary research articles cited. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: electron microscope. See also: scanning probe microscope. See also: fluorescence microscope , immunofluorescence , and confocal microscope. Main article: X-ray microscope. Main article: Optical microscope.

Main article: Electron microscope. Main article: Scanning probe microscopy.


Greg Foot explains the main differences between light and electron microscopes. We need microscopes to study most cells. Microscopes are used to produce magnified images. There are two main types of microscope:. Glass was developed by the Romans in the first century. Since then, scientists have been trying to magnify objects. No-one knows who first invented the microscope, but there have been key stages in their development:.

Various types of microscopes are available for use in the microbiology laboratory. The microscopes have varied applications and modifications that contribute to their usefulness. The light microscope. The common light microscope used in the laboratory is called a compound microscope because it contains two types of lenses that function to magnify an object. The lens closest to the eye is called the ocular , while the lens closest to the object is called the objective.

5 Different Types of Microscopes: · Stereo Microscope · Compound Microscope · Inverted Microscope · Metallurgical Microscope · Polarizing Microscope.


Microscopy is the science of investigating small objects and structures using a microscope. Microscopic means being invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes, and they may be grouped in different ways. One way is to describe the method an instrument uses to interact with a sample and produce images, either by sending a beam of light or electrons through a sample in its optical path , by detecting photon emissions from a sample, or by scanning across and a short distance from the surface of a sample using a probe.

Types of Microscopes. If you are sent to a web site click on the browser's back button to return! This microscope uses a laser light. This light is used because of the wavelength. Laser light scan across the specimen with the aid of scanning mirrors.

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While most people picture the compound model from lab class when they think of microscopes, many types of microscopes are actually available. These useful devices are employed by researchers, medical technicians and students on a daily basis; the type they select depends on their resources and needs.

Important Types of Microscopes used in Biology (With Diagram)

There are several different types of microscopes used in light microscopy, and the four most popular types are Compound, Stereo, Digital and the Pocket or handheld microscopes. Some types are best suited for biological applications, where others are best for classroom or personal hobby use. Outside of light microscopy are the exciting developments with electron microscopes and in scanning probe microscopy.

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Types of Microscopes

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Пройдя помещение шифровалки и зайдя в лабораторию систем безопасности, он сразу почувствовал что-то неладное. Компьютер, который постоянно отслеживал работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, оказался выключен, вокруг не было ни души. - Эй! - крикнул Чатрукьян. Ответа не последовало. В лаборатории царил образцовый порядок, словно здесь никто не появлялся уже много часов.


  1. Philip L. 15.05.2021 at 11:00

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  2. Azrael N. 24.05.2021 at 03:49

    •Microscopes are categories. Light (optical) microscopes and 2. Electron microscopes. •Optical microscopes further categorized as. Polarizing Microscope, 2. Bright field microscopy (Fig. Phase contrast microscopy (Fig. - Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) Microscopy.

  3. Bernabeu S. 24.05.2021 at 17:38

    Compound Microscope. Stereo Microscope. Other Types of Microscopes. Objective Lenses. Eyepiece (Ocular) Condenser Lens (Sub-stage Condenser) Diaphragm. Illumination Systems (Light Source).

  4. Madeleine R. 24.05.2021 at 18:27

    Microscope , instrument that produces enlarged images of small objects, allowing the observer an exceedingly close view of minute structures at a scale convenient for examination and analysis.