Principles And Practices Of Organic Farming Pdf
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Organic Farming Manual Pdf. A resource manual for the organic food and farming sector In , the European Action Plan for Organic Food and Farming has been launched. If a complete copy is needed, we encourage you to purchase a copy as described below.
- Biodynamic Principles and Practices
- Subject Guide: Agriculture: MSc Organic Farming Reading List
- Principles of Organic Farming Hindi PDF
Biodynamic Principles and Practices
Organic farming , agricultural system that uses ecologically based pest controls and biological fertilizers derived largely from animal and plant wastes and nitrogen-fixing cover crops. Modern organic farming was developed as a response to the environmental harm caused by the use of chemical pesticides and synthetic fertilizers in conventional agriculture, and it has numerous ecological benefits.
Compared with conventional agriculture, organic farming uses fewer pesticides, reduces soil erosion , decreases nitrate leaching into groundwater and surface water, and recycles animal wastes back into the farm. These benefits are counterbalanced by higher food costs for consumers and generally lower yields. Indeed, yields of organic crops have been found to be about 25 percent lower overall than conventionally grown crops, although this can vary considerably depending upon the type of crop.
The challenge for future organic agriculture will be to maintain its environmental benefits, increase yields, and reduce prices while meeting the challenges of climate change and an increasing world population.
The concepts of organic agriculture were developed in the early s by Sir Albert Howard, F. King , Rudolf Steiner , and others who believed that the use of animal manures often made into compost , cover crops, crop rotation, and biologically based pest controls resulted in a better farming system. Howard, having worked in India as an agricultural researcher, gained much inspiration from the traditional and sustainable farming practices he encountered there and advocated for their adoption in the West.
Such practices were further promoted by various advocates—such as J. Rodale and his son Robert, in the s and onward, who published Organic Gardening and Farming magazine and a number of texts on organic farming. The demand for organic food was stimulated in the s by the publication of Silent Spring , by Rachel Carson , which documented the extent of environmental damage caused by insecticides. Organic food sales increased steadily from the late 20th century.
Greater environmental awareness, coupled with concerns over the health impacts of pesticide residues and consumption of genetically modified GMO crops, fostered the growth of the organic sector. The price of organic food is generally higher than that of conventionally grown food. Depending on the product, the season, and the vagaries of supply and demand , the price of organic food can be anywhere from less than 10 percent below to more than percent above that of conventionally grown produce.
Organic agriculture is defined formally by governments. Organic standards in the European Union EU and the United States , for example, prohibit the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, ionizing radiation , sewage sludge , and genetically engineered plants or products.
In the EU, organic certification and inspection is carried out by approved organic control bodies according to EU standards. Organic farming has been defined by the National Organic Standards of the U. Department of Agriculture USDA since , and there are many accredited organic certifiers across the country.
Although most countries have their own programs for organic certification, certifiers in the EU or the United States can inspect and certify growers and processors for other countries. This is especially useful when products grown organically in Mexico , for example, are exported to the United States.
Since synthetic fertilizers are not used, building and maintaining a rich, living soil through the addition of organic matter is a priority for organic farmers. Organic matter can be applied through the application of manure , compost , and animal by-products, such as feather meal or blood meal. Due to the potential for harbouring human pathogens, the USDA National Organic Standards mandate that raw manure must be applied no later than 90 or days before harvest, depending on whether the harvested part of the crop is in contact with the ground.
Composted manure that has been turned 5 times in 15 days and reached temperatures between 55— Compost adds organic matter, providing a wide range of nutrients for plants, and adds beneficial microbes to the soil. In comparison, synthetic fertilizers are already in mineralized form and can be taken up by plants directly. Soil is maintained by planting and then tilling in cover crops , which help protect the soil from erosion off-season and provide additional organic matter.
The tilling in of nitrogen-fixing cover crops, such as clover or alfalfa , also adds nitrogen to the soil. Cover crops are commonly planted before or after the cash crop season or in conjunction with crop rotation and can also be planted between the rows of some crops, such as tree fruits.
Organic pesticides are derived from naturally occurring sources. These include living organisms such as the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis , which is used to control caterpillar pests, or plant derivatives such as pyrethrins from the dried flower heads of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium or neem oil from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Mineral-based inorganic pesticides such as sulfur and copper are also allowed. In addition to pesticides, organic pest control integrates biological, cultural, and genetic controls to minimize pest damage.
Biological control utilizes the natural enemies of pests, such as predatory insects e. Pest cycles can be disrupted with cultural controls, of which crop rotation is the most widely used. Finally, traditional plant breeding has produced numerous crop varieties that are resistant to specific pests.
The use of such varieties and the planting of genetically diverse crops provide genetic control against pests and many plant diseases. Organic farming Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Davis Student Farm. See Article History. Alternative Titles: organic agriculture, organic gardening. A discussion of organic farming and the benefits of growing crops such as lentils.
A plot of organically grown mixed vegetables, Capay, California. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.
Subscribe Now. Farmer managing a compost pile in France. Compost adds rich organic matter and beneficial microbes to the soil. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Organic food is grown without the use of synthetic chemicals, such as human-made pesticides and fertilizers, and does not contain genetically modified organisms GMOs.
Organic foods include fresh produce, meats, and dairy products as well as processed foods such as crackers, drinks,…. Synthetic pyrethrin compounds, known as pyrethroids, have been developed.
Both synthetic and non-synthetic pyrethrins can accumulate in water and wetland sediments and are toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address.
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Subject Guide: Agriculture: MSc Organic Farming Reading List
The four principals of organic farming — health, balance, fairness, balance and care — provide a vision for agriculture that inspires environmentally friendly cultivation and production. Organic farming aims to produce superior quality products, with high nutritional value and no chemicals, with the purpose of good health. It aims to create a sustainable system that conserves energy, soil and water; while at the same time providing general maintenance of the environment. This number is expected to continue to increase. To understand more about the sector itself, it helps to know what the driving force is behind it.
Organic farming , agricultural system that uses ecologically based pest controls and biological fertilizers derived largely from animal and plant wastes and nitrogen-fixing cover crops. Modern organic farming was developed as a response to the environmental harm caused by the use of chemical pesticides and synthetic fertilizers in conventional agriculture, and it has numerous ecological benefits. Compared with conventional agriculture, organic farming uses fewer pesticides, reduces soil erosion , decreases nitrate leaching into groundwater and surface water, and recycles animal wastes back into the farm. These benefits are counterbalanced by higher food costs for consumers and generally lower yields. Indeed, yields of organic crops have been found to be about 25 percent lower overall than conventionally grown crops, although this can vary considerably depending upon the type of crop.
Click on the titles below to access the files from each unit. Note: Please help us track the use of this resource. We welcome your feedback and suggestions for improving this material. An introduction to the material and how to use it to teach organic farming and gardening skills. Includes table of contents, list of contributors and reviewers.
Principles of Organic Farming Hindi PDF
Principles of Organic Farming. Organic Agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet as one and indivisible. This principle points out that the health of individuals and communities cannot be separated from the health of ecosystems - healthy soils produce healthy crops that foster the health of animals and people.
Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Lecture Schedule—Theory. Principles of Organic Farming. Lecture In PDF.
Organic farming is an agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Certified organic agriculture accounts for 70 million hectares globally, with over half of that total in Australia. It is defined by the use of fertilizers of organic origin such as compost manure , green manure , and bone meal and places emphasis on techniques such as crop rotation and companion planting.
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