Camera Shutter Speed And Aperture Pdf
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- Thursday, May 13, 2021 4:13:26 PM
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As such, nearly 6 years into running this website, I thought I might put together a few articles on some of the basic principles of photography, but talk about them in the context of analogue rather than digital. This first article is to focus on three key variables in photography: shutter speed, aperture and ISO film speed , and the relationship between them. The first thing to understand about these three variables is that if you strip a camera back to its most basic function, shutter speed, aperture and film speed are the only things beyond light itself that you need to understand to take a photo.
- Guide to Aperture Shutter Speed and ISO PDF
- How to Use Your DSLR Camera: 15+ Photography Tutorials
- Understanding Shutter Speed, Aperture, Film Speed (ISO) & The Relationship Between Them
- Slow Shutter Speeds
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Guide to Aperture Shutter Speed and ISO PDF
As such, nearly 6 years into running this website, I thought I might put together a few articles on some of the basic principles of photography, but talk about them in the context of analogue rather than digital.
This first article is to focus on three key variables in photography: shutter speed, aperture and ISO film speed , and the relationship between them. The first thing to understand about these three variables is that if you strip a camera back to its most basic function, shutter speed, aperture and film speed are the only things beyond light itself that you need to understand to take a photo.
Exposure defines how light or dark a photo will be. By understanding the exposure triangle it is not only possible to achieve correct exposure, but it also opens the up doors to greater creativity within photography. This is about the most simple definition of correct exposure I can think of. As a definition, it overlooks many potential creative goals — but to obtain the correct exposure, it is important to understand all three of the key variables, and indeed the relationship between them.
And so, the best place to start is to understand what they do and how they work. Open the shutter and light travels through to the film behind. Close it and it prevents the light from hitting the film behind. A slow shutter speed let light through for a longer amount of time, and a fast shutter speed lets light through for less time.
Shutter speed is measured in seconds and fractions of seconds. If you look at the picture below you will see a shutter speed dial with shutter speeds from 1 to The scale on my camera goes 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, , , , With the exception of the difference between 8 and 15 and 60 and the numbers double or halve. The slight discrepancy is just a product of rounding to keep the numbers, well, round. This standardisation was introduced in the s so older cameras might have different numbers, but the principle is essentially the same.
The numbers double and halve for good reason too. Doubling and halving is the underlying system behind how exposure works. With shutter speeds, changing from one setting to the next halves or doubles the amount of time light is able to travel through to the film behind. So, when you increase the shutter speed by one stop, you are halving the amount of time light travels through to the film. When you decrease the shutter speed by one stop you are doubling the amount of time light travels through to the film.
This halves the amount of time light travels to the film. This doubles the amount of time light travels to the film. The faster the subject is moving the faster the shutter speed needed to freeze it. Bouncing children frozen in mid-air — captured with a higher shutter speed. To make things slightly more complicated, the longer the focal length of the lens, the more camera shake will be seen in the photos.
Inside all lenses, there is a thing called an iris. The larger the aperture, the more light is let through, the smaller the aperture the less light is let through. Inside this lens, the leaves of the iris can be seen to create a near-circular aperture. The aperture of a lens is measured as a fraction of the focal length of the lens.
What appear to be small numbers actually relate to a larger aperture, and what appear to be big numbers relate to a smaller apertures. You can see the scale of numbers on the top of the lens below. Make sense? Remember the doubling and halving from shutter speed?
The difference between one f-number and the next is a doubling or halving of the amount of light the lens lets through. The chosen aperture of a lens defines something called depth of field. Depth of field is the amount of the photo that is in focus in front of and behind the chosen point of focus.
This is an example of broad depth of field — note the focus from the foreground all the way to the background:. A little while ago I wrote an article for Ilford that talks about depth of field and something called zone focusing — here — it should help you if this concept needs a little more explanation. A little nugget of information that will likely become useful as you begin to get your head around aperture is that not all lenses are made equal when it comes to the minimum and maximum apertures.
The fast lens dwarfs the slow lens in weight and size! The ISO system was adopted in the s, with a few other systems predating it. Fortunately, whilst DIN numbers are still printed on film canisters as part of the ISO system, these days they are largely ignored. ISO numbers are values given to the sensitivity of film to light. The lower the number the slower the film reacts to light, the higher the number the faster the film reacts to light. As such faster films higher ISO are useful in lower light situations and slower films lower ISO are more suitable for brighter-light photography.
Common film speeds are , , , , and ISO. Notice the pattern of doubling and halving again? That is to say, it will react to light that travels through the aperture and shutter half as fast. A ISO film is more broadly suited to brighter day time shooting. It reacts to the light twice as fast. An ISO film is more suited to slightly lower light shooting circumstances.
A ISO film is most suitable for low light shooting. As a general rule the higher the ISO the film is, the more grainy it will be. The lower the less grainy. The ISO of the film is fixed, the exposure index a film is shot at can be varied by the photographer. So when setting a camera or meter to an exposure index of , this is often abbreviated to EI Setting box speed is simply setting the exposure index of the meter or camera to the ISO of the film the film speed printed on the box.
For reasons largely beyond the scope of this article, some people like to overexpose or underexpose their film. So, for example, setting the exposure index to when shooting a ISO film would be overexposing the film by one stop. The meter thinks the film is rather than ISO so bases shutter and aperture readings accordingly, thus resulting in 1 stop overexposure of the film.
Likewise, setting the camera or meter to EI when shooting a ISO film is underexposing the film by 2 stops. This, again, is a subject well beyond the scope of this article, I mention it only to highlight a common mistake in the way these words are used. Push-processing is the process of over-developing the film to counteract the underexposure.
In short, with some films, it is ok to over or underexpose your film a little bit without the need to push or pull process it respectively. This is much more true of negative film than it is of reversal slide film which requires tighter control of exposure to get good results.
The fact that some films can be overexposed quite heavily actually provides a shortcut cheat to better results when shooting film — I wrote about this here. Just beware, cheating that much can and does lead to inconsistency in your results which can make learning much of the content of this post a lot harder. But, if you know how the settings work together, you have a much-increased chance of being able to achieve your creative goals. The purpose of this system is to allow the three settings to have a reciprocal relationship.
That is to say, if you increase your shutter speed by one stop, thus letting light in for half the amount of time, you can retain the same exposure by opening up your aperture by one stop, thus doubling the amount of light travelling through the open shutter. Halve one, double the other. Double one, halve the other. Double one 5 times, you need to halve the other 5 times to retain the same exposure, and so on…. The decision about which particular combination of settings is right therefore simply comes down to your creative goals or other limitations — such as whether or not you have a tripod.
This might result in a more grainy photo, but with the camera handheld, you would be less likely to suffer from camera shake induced motion blur in the result. The point being, sometimes selecting the right settings is about choosing the best compromise to achieve your creative goal! Reciprocity failure is what happens to some most films given long very slow shutter speeds.
Just a final quick note before I close. To keep things simple I have been talking about what we call whole stops. This makes for some less memorable number-sequences, but the system is the same. I vividly remember the joyous moment it all clicked for me. When it clicks for you, I guarantee it will seem so simple, you wondered what on earth seemed so complicated about it all! The difference is, when you know it all — when you take the power of this knowledge into your own photography — it is you that will be able to make the creative decisions, and not your camera.
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Find out how here. Nice explanation Hamish, handy to have a resource to point people to when they ask of talking until their eyes glaze over leaving me to wonder where I lost them and why? One advantage today with digital photography is the ability to try settings and rapidly see results with the feedback helping to re-enforce the understanding. In fact just using a smart phone light meter would be a great way to grasp the concepts here and the interplay between the parameters.
Indeed — I nearly went down the road of recommending something like the lumu app. Beethoven often broke the rules, but you can bet your bottom dollar that he knew what they were before he broke them.
Incidentally, but certainly outside the scope here, reciprocity also raises its head with very fast shutter speeds or, more accurately, very short effective exposure times.
How to Use Your DSLR Camera: 15+ Photography Tutorials
In photography, exposure is a critical element that determines what is actually recorded on a camera's image sensor. Shutter Speed indicates the speed in which the curtain opens then closes. The shutter speed is measured in fractions of a second. When these three elements are combined, they represent a given exposure value EV for a given setting. Any change in any one of the three elements will have a measurable and specific impact on how the remaining two elements react to expose the film frame or image sensor and how the image ultimately looks. Reducing the shutter speed affects how motion is captured, in that this can cause the background or subject to become blurry.
Understanding Shutter Speed, Aperture, Film Speed (ISO) & The Relationship Between Them
The Exposure Triangle This guide to photographic exposure aims to help you take full control of your camera. I teach them how to take the camera off auto mode and take full control of the settings themselves in order to create the photograph they want. Why let the camera decide these things for you?
Ready to learn how to use your DSLR camera?
Slow Shutter Speeds
The combination of aperture f-number and shutter speed determines exposure another important factor in determining exposure is ISO sensitivity, but in the discussion that follows we will assume that ISO sensitivity is fixed. Choosing higher f-numbers correspondingly darkens the image that falls on the image sensor, but you can still achieve optimal exposure if you slow shutter speed in proportion. On the other hand, you can also achieve optimal exposure by choosing a lower f-number and a faster shutter speed. In other words, there are many combinations of aperture and shutter speed that will produce the same exposure. If you always adjust shutter speed to match any changes in aperture, you can achieve correct exposure at any aperture or shutter speed. Note, however, that changing aperture also changes depth of field, while changing shutter speed alters the appearance of moving objects.
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