Fertilizer Types And Their Uses Pdf
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A fertilizer American English or fertiliser British English ; see spelling differences is any material of natural or synthetic origin other than liming materials that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants. Many sources of fertilizer exist, both natural and industrially produced. Management of soil fertility has preoccupied farmers for thousands of years.
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- Fertilizer: Types and important fertilizers
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A good gardener knows the importance of a good fertilizer. Become a fertilizing expert as you learn about the different options and nutrients that can impact your plants.
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A fertilizer American English or fertiliser British English ; see spelling differences is any material of natural or synthetic origin other than liming materials that is applied to soil or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Many sources of fertilizer exist, both natural and industrially produced. Management of soil fertility has preoccupied farmers for thousands of years. Egyptians, Romans, Babylonians, and early Germans are all recorded as using minerals or manure to enhance the productivity of their farms. John Bennet Lawes , an English entrepreneur , began to experiment on the effects of various manures on plants growing in pots in , and a year or two later the experiments were extended to crops in the field.
One immediate consequence was that in he patented a manure formed by treating phosphates with sulfuric acid, and thus was the first to create the artificial manure industry. In the succeeding year he enlisted the services of Joseph Henry Gilbert ; together they performed crop experiments at the Institute of Arable Crops Research. The Birkeland—Eyde process was one of the competing industrial processes in the beginning of nitrogen-based fertilizer production.
A factory based on the process was built in Rjukan and Notodden in Norway, combined with the building of large hydroelectric power facilities. The s and s witnessed the rise of the Haber process and the Ostwald process. A maize crop yielding 6—9 tonnes of grain per hectare 2. Fertilizers enhance the growth of plants. This goal is met in two ways, the traditional one being additives that provide nutrients. The second mode by which some fertilizers act is to enhance the effectiveness of the soil by modifying its water retention and aeration.
This article, like many on fertilizers, emphasises the nutritional aspect. Fertilizers typically provide, in varying proportions : . The nutrients required for healthy plant life are classified according to the elements, but the elements are not used as fertilizers. Instead compounds containing these elements are the basis of fertilizers. The macro-nutrients are consumed in larger quantities and are present in plant tissue in quantities from 0.
Plants are made up of four main elements: hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are widely available as water and carbon dioxide. Although nitrogen makes up most of the atmosphere, it is in a form that is unavailable to plants. Nitrogen is the most important fertilizer since nitrogen is present in proteins , DNA and other components e.
To be nutritious to plants, nitrogen must be made available in a "fixed" form. Only some bacteria and their host plants notably legumes can fix atmospheric nitrogen N 2 by converting it to ammonia. Phosphate is required for the production of DNA and ATP , the main energy carrier in cells, as well as certain lipids. Two sets of enzymatic reactions are highly relevant to the efficiency of nitrogen-based fertilizers. The first is the hydrolysis reaction with water of urea.
Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria AOB , such as species of Nitrosomonas , oxidize ammonia to nitrite , a process termed nitrification. Fertilizers are classified in several ways. They are classified according to whether they provide a single nutrient e. Fertilizers are also sometimes classified as inorganic the topic of most of this article versus organic. Inorganic fertilizers exclude carbon-containing materials except ureas. Organic fertilizers are usually recycled plant- or animal-derived matter.
Inorganic are sometimes called synthetic fertilizers since various chemical treatments are required for their manufacture. The main nitrogen-based straight fertilizer is ammonia or its solutions.
Ammonium nitrate NH 4 NO 3 is also widely used. Urea is another popular source of nitrogen, having the advantage that it is solid and non-explosive, unlike ammonia and ammonium nitrate, respectively. The main straight phosphate fertilizers are the superphosphates. A mixture of single superphosphate and triple superphosphate is called double superphosphate. The main potassium-based straight fertilizer is muriate of potash MOP. Major two-component fertilizers provide both nitrogen and phosphorus to the plants.
These are called NP fertilizers. NPK rating is a rating system describing the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in a fertilizer. NPK ratings consist of three numbers separated by dashes e. Fertilizers do not actually contain P 2 O 5 or K 2 O, but the system is a conventional shorthand for the amount of the phosphorus P or potassium K in a fertilizer. Most fertilizers are labeled according to this N-P-K convention, although Australian convention, following an N-P-K-S system, adds a fourth number for sulfur, and uses elemental values for all values including P and K.
Micronutrients are consumed in smaller quantities and are present in plant tissue on the order of parts-per-million ppm , ranging from 0. Because these elements enable catalysts enzymes , their impact far exceeds their weight percentage. Typical micronutrients are boron, zinc, molybdenum, iron, and manganese. Iron presents special problems because it converts to insoluble bio-unavailable compounds at moderate soil pH and phosphate concentrations.
For this reason, iron is often administered as a chelate complex , e. The micronutrient needs depend on the plant and the environment. For example, sugar beets appear to require boron , and legumes require cobalt ,  while environmental conditions such as heat or drought make boron less available for plants.
Nitrogen fertilizers are made from ammonia NH 3 produced by the Haber-Bosch process. Deposits of sodium nitrate NaNO 3 Chilean saltpeter are also found in the Atacama desert in Chile and was one of the original nitrogen-rich fertilizers used. These minerals are converted into water-soluble phosphate salts by treatment with sulfuric H 2 SO 4 or phosphoric acids H 3 PO 4.
The large production of sulfuric acid is primarily motivated by this application. This mixture can be combined with a potassium fertilizer to produce a compound fertilizer with the three macronutrients N, P and K in easily dissolved form.
Potash is a mixture of potassium minerals used to make potassium chemical symbol: K fertilizers. Potash is soluble in water, so the main effort in producing this nutrient from the ore involves some purification steps; e.
Sometimes potash is referred to as K 2 O, as a matter of convenience to those describing the potassium content. In fact, potash fertilizers are usually potassium chloride , potassium sulfate , potassium carbonate , or potassium nitrate. Compound fertilizers, which contain N, P, and K, can often be produced by mixing straight fertilizers.
In some cases, chemical reactions occur between the two or more components. Fertilizers of an organic origin the first definition include animal wastes , plant wastes from agriculture, compost , and treated sewage sludge biosolids. Beyond manures, animal sources can include products from the slaughter of animals — bloodmeal , bone meal , feather meal , hides, hoofs, and horns all are typical components. No matter the definition nor composition, most of these products contain less-concentrated nutrients, and the nutrients are not as easily quantified.
In terms of volume, peat is the most widely used packaged organic soil amendment. It is an immature form of coal and improves the soil by aeration and absorbing water but confers no nutritional value to the plants. It is therefore not a fertilizer as defined in the beginning of the article, but rather an amendment.
Coir , derived from coconut husks , bark, and sawdust when added to soil all act similarly but not identically to peat and are also considered organic soil amendments — or texturizers — because of their limited nutritive inputs. Some organic additives can have a reverse effect on nutrients — fresh sawdust can consume soil nutrients as it breaks down, and may lower soil pH — but these same organic texturizers as well as compost, etc.
Organic fertilizers such as composts and manures may be distributed locally without going into industry production, making actual consumption more difficult to quantify. Fertilizers are commonly used for growing all crops, with application rates depending on the soil fertility, usually as measured by a soil test and according to the particular crop.
Legumes, for example, fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and generally do not require nitrogen fertilizer. Fertilizers are applied to crops both as solids and as liquid.
The most widely used solid inorganic fertilizers are urea , diammonium phosphate and potassium chloride. Often solids are available as prills , a solid globule.
Liquid fertilizers comprise anhydrous ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonia, aqueous solutions of ammonium nitrate or urea. These concentrated products may be diluted with water to form a concentrated liquid fertilizer e.
Advantages of liquid fertilizer are its more rapid effect and easier coverage. Urea is highly soluble in water and is therefore also very suitable for use in fertilizer solutions in combination with ammonium nitrate: UAN , e.
For fertilizer use, granules are preferred over prills because of their narrower particle size distribution, which is an advantage for mechanical application. Smaller applications incur lower losses due to leaching. During summer, urea is often spread just before or during rain to minimize losses from volatilization a process wherein nitrogen is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia gas.
Because of the high nitrogen concentration in urea, it is very important to achieve an even spread. Drilling must not occur on contact with or close to seed, due to the risk of germination damage. Urea dissolves in water for application as a spray or through irrigation systems. In grain and cotton crops, urea is often applied at the time of the last cultivation before planting. In high rainfall areas and on sandy soils where nitrogen can be lost through leaching and where good in-season rainfall is expected, urea can be side- or top-dressed during the growing season.
Top-dressing is also popular on pasture and forage crops. In cultivating sugarcane, urea is side-dressed after planting, and applied to each ratoon crop.
Overdose or placing urea near seed is harmful. Slow- and controlled-release involve only 0. Controlled release fertilizers are traditional fertilizers encapsulated in a shell that degrades at a specified rate. Foliar fertilizers are applied directly to leaves. This method is almost invariably used to apply water-soluble straight nitrogen fertilizers and used especially for high-value crops such as fruits. Urea is the most common foliar fertilizer.
Fertilizer: Types and important fertilizers
Fertilizer is material that is applied to the soil or sprayed on crops aboveground directly or indirectly in order to supply nutrients, increase crop yields and improve product quality. Direct fertilizer supplies essential nutrients to crops, including NPK fertilizer, compound fertilizer and micro-element fertilizer, etc. Indirect fertilizer is used for improving soil physical and chemical properties, thereby making growth condition of crops better, such as lime, gypsum and bacterial fertilizers. Fertilizer is in a variety of classification method and types, while having great difference in ingredient and chemical property. What are different types of fertilizer? How to classify the fertilizer?
As expected, applications of organic fertilizer and controlled-release fertilizer are gradually varying traditional fertilization, being considered as important channels for substitution of conventional chemical-fertilizer. However, information regarding their effects on rice Oryza sativa L. These results suggest that a kind of suitable fertilizer could be chosen from them as alternatives according to desired goal in high-quality rice production. Chemical fertilizer application plays a vital role in enhancing rice Oryza sativa L. In recent years, the input of chemical fertilizer is rising rapidly and N and P have been overused in rice production, leading to not only environmental pollution but also an increase in production cost Asman et al. However, the use efficiency of fertilizer is relatively low in China Jin,
and application of appropriate fertilizer use and plant nutrition SOIL NUTRIENTS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE. Types of soil structure and permeability.
The European fertilizer industry transforms millions of tons of naturally occurring raw materials such as air, natural gas and mined ores into high quality plant nutrition products. The main products are nitrate-based fertilizers such as ammonium nitrate AN and calcium ammonium nitrate CAN , which are well suited to most European soils and climatic conditions, and urea and urea ammonium nitrate UAN aqueous solution, which are widely used in other parts of the world. Other straight nitrogen fertilizers include ammonium sulphate and ammonium sulphate nitrate, calcium nitrate, sodium nitrate, Chilean nitrate and anhydrous ammonia. Certain weather and soil conditions can lead to nitrogen immobilisation, denitrification, volatilization or leaching, all reducing fertilizer efficiency. In response, the industry has developed special types of fertilizers designed to reduce these effects.
Fertilizer is any material of natural or synthetic origin added to the soil to supply one or more plant nutrients. Urea, ammonium sulphate, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate. These fertilisers are usually produced in granular form.
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Types of fertilizer
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