Rotation And Revolution Of Earth Pdf Eye On Sky
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We are going to use the Earth-Moon system model once again, but this activity gets the children thinking about our scientific model in a different way; it also helps students understand the difference between rotation a body spinning around on an internal axis , and revolution one body circling around another. These two motions are generally independent of each other; our Earth, for instance, rotates
Planetary Size and Distance Comparison
We are going to use the Earth-Moon system model once again, but this activity gets the children thinking about our scientific model in a different way; it also helps students understand the difference between rotation a body spinning around on an internal axis , and revolution one body circling around another.
These two motions are generally independent of each other; our Earth, for instance, rotates Planets are generally not synchronized , that is to say their rotation time and revolution time do not divide evenly into one another. Our Moon indeed most moons are exceptions to this and have synchronized orbits , as we shall see.
Academic Standards. The concepts of rotation and revolution are often difficult, not just children, but adults often struggle with them. It is not that the concepts are inherently difficult, but I suspect that because we fail to introduce children to them at all, this sets them up to struggle later in life.
Studies show that we must be exposed to novel concepts several times before we begin to internalize them; even more exposure and practice is needed to master a concept. In keeping with the philosophy of many exposures to achieve mastery, we will return to these ideas again as you work through this book. We are going to use the Earth and Moon model we built in Activity 3. You can use either the larger or smaller size model, but this activity generally works better outside using the larger size model.
It may help your students visualize what is going on if you color your moon model before you work with it. Hang the moon model from the string it should look like you are hanging it from the North Pole. Draw a line where the equator should be and color the southern hemisphere dark grey, and the northern hemisphere white.
With the model in place in the playground, ask the students what the cord between the model Earth and model Moon represents? The cord represents the force of gravity that holds the Moon in orbit of course, but the students may need to be guided to this idea. In general, if the students can stand meters ft. As you can see in the illustration below, rotation occurs when a body such as the Earth spins around an internal axis.
Virtually all objects in space spin around their own internal axis; for the Earth, this creates the night and day cycle. Revolution occurs when one object orbits around another. The Moon for instance, revolves around the Earth once per month. We will use the Earth-Moon model that we constructed in Activity 3. It should be modified as discussed in the Teaching and Pedagogy section above.
If your students are studying ratios, the orbits of the planets provide wonderful material for this. If you use a search engine Google, Yahoo, etc. Try dividing the revolution time by the rotation time. For Earth this will give you If you do this, you must be sure the numbers are in the same units. To make the units the same, multiply Look up the facts for other planets and moons in our solar system, you will be astonished at what you learn! Our model has told us something about the Moon, but is it really true?
This idea given to us by the model one side of the Moon always faces the Earth is called an hypothesis. An hypothesis is an idea that we use to try to understand how the universe works — but it must be tested!
Astronomers test ideas like this by making observations. Observations can be made by looking at the sky with just your eye, or by looking through a telescope or pair of binoculars; some scientists even use cameras to take accurate photographs which can be studied later!
Try observing the Moon for a month! If you start after new moon, you will find the Moon in the sky just after sunset. After the full moon passes, the Moon is best observed in the early morning sky. Winter is a good time to do this because the Sun does not rise too early in the morning, and the sky gets dark early in the evening. Can you verify that you always see the same side? How can you be sure? Write your ideas down in a journal, then make sketches of what you see.
The globe has many features, but they are always in the same places — the continents never move around! The Moon has regular features too, some are bright and others are dark. If students look for these familiar features, they should be able to verify that they see only one side of the Moon. There is more than one way to observe the Moon!
Do an internet search for images of the Moon. Look at each one and see if you can find common features to verify our hypothesis. You can also search for images of the far side of the Moon. The far side looks nothing like the familiar near side. Even today, when you point out that we only ever see the near side of the Moon, many people will insist that this means that the Moon does not rotate on its axis. The precise match of rotation time to revolution time seems almost miraculous; in fact, it is no such thing.
This activity will show your students both clearly and simply how this works. This series of activities begins to explore gravity as a fundamental force that shapes our universe. The shape of the Moon, how it moves in orbit, the way one side always faces our planet, even the peculiar ratio of rotation and revolution that we call a synchronous orbit — none of these things can be understood without understanding gravity first!
The first person to understand the intimate relationship between gravity and the motion of the Moon was Isaac Newton. The famous story of Newton being struck on the head by a falling apple was actually the moment he discovered that the Moon and the apple both fall because of the same force — gravity! Newton was the first to realize that gravitational force extends far out into space and effectively rules the cosmos!
Newton was perhaps the smartest man ever to have lived; he invented the mathematics we call calculus to help him understand the action of gravity and the motion of the Moon in orbit around the Earth.
You will need several items for this activity — some of the model building must be done by an adult, or by older students with professional adult. This activity requires some preparation by the teacher beforehand, as in our other activities, students will paint and decorate the model before working with it. Depending on the age of your students, you may wish to make more than one lop-sided Moon model. For children in grades , this works well as a group activity with students per group.
This is also a discovery type activity, you should not share your preparation of the materials with the students before they begin — they will figure things out soon enough! I have taken a conservative approach and reserved all tasks with tools for the teacher. Add more hot glue until the cavity is completely full, then put the square of foil on top and press it down with the kitchen hot pad for a minute or two until the glue hardens completely.
You should now have a smooth spot that matches the curvature of the ball quite well, and the weight is sealed inside where the students cannot touch it. Hot glue can easily burn you and the foil will not protect your hand from the heat! The idea that just one side of the Moon always faces the Earth is sometimes hard for children to accept. One way for children to see for themselves is to observe the Moon carefully over time.
The pattern of dark spots or maria on the lunar surface gives us a clue to what we are actually seeing. If students take a look at a globe of the Earth, it becomes clear that Earth looks very different depending on which side of the globe we are looking at. The same is true of the Moon! Have students look carefully at the pattern of maria on the Moon as it runs from new moon to full moon. Although the Moon crosses the sky, the pattern of marks and dark maria we see never changes ; we never see the far side at all.
You can do this with a globe in the classroom — point the Americas toward the students, no matter how you tilt the globe from side to side, the pattern of continents and oceans always remains the same — you are not showing them the opposite side of the globe!
Their own observations of the lunar surface should convince them that they never actually see the far side of the Moon. It looks quite different! There are very few dark maria on the lunar far side, and the four that are there are quite small and unlike the extensive seas of frozen lava that create the dark markings on the lunar near side!
This is an interesting activity for older, or more advanced students. While a telescope is quite useful, this activity can actually be done by exploring photographs of the Moon on the internet! Developing and using models. Planning and carrying out investigations. Analyzing and interpreting data. Using mathematics. Constructing explanations.
Argument from evidence. Crosscutting Concepts Systems and system models. Space systems K-5, , The Earth-Moon system , Gravitation and orbits , For the Educator Facts you need to know From here on Earth, we only see one side of the Moon, commonly called the near side. Rotation and Revolution are different! Things rotate on their axis the way a carousel spins on its central axis. To revolve , you must circle around a point outside your body.
A tetherball revolves around the pole and the Earth revolves around the Sun. All planets and moons both rotate and revolve; just as the Earth rotates on its axis once a day, and revolves around the Sun once a year.
The Moon is interesting because it rotates only once on its axis each time it revolves around the Earth. Rotation and Revolution take the same amount of time — about 28 days.
Retrograde and prograde motion
This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Review planet order and relative sizes in our solar system. Ask students to point out the location of Earth. Then challenge them to identify all of the planets, outward from the sun left to right : inner planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars; outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Remind students that Pluto is no longer considered a planet in our solar system; it was downgraded to the status of dwarf planet in Point out the locations of the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter and Kuiper belt past Pluto if they were included in this illustration. Explain to students that the illustration shows the planets in relative size.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. As the brightest natural object in Earth's night sky after the Moon , Venus can cast shadows and can be, on rare occasion, visible to the naked eye in broad daylight. Venus orbits the Sun every Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun, and bulk composition. It is radically different from Earth in other respects. Venus is shrouded by an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid , preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light.
to move through the sky? Because the Earth rotates around its N-S axis once every 24 hrs. N. Noon. E. W moving due to the Earth's rotation (english units)? orbit plane that is the cause of the seasons. unaided eye at a dark site. • Limited.
3.3: Rotation and Revolution
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System , after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius of about nine times that of Earth. Saturn's interior is most likely composed of a core of iron—nickel and rock silicon and oxygen compounds. Its core is surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen , an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium , and finally a gaseous outer layer. Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere.
Vesta is the second most massive body in the asteroid belt, surpassed only by Ceres, which is classified as a dwarf planet. The brightest asteroid in the sky, Vesta is occasionally visible from Earth with the naked eye. It is the first of the four largest asteroids Ceres, Vesta, Pallas and Hygiea to be visited by a spacecraft.