Peace And Conflict Resolution In Nigeria Pdf

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Although Nigeria has been spared conflict on the scale experienced by many other African countries, it experiences a mass of relatively minor conflicts. It focuses on the interaction between resource competition and the corruption of the political system, and calls for action in the overall area of conflict prevention. Following independence in , Nigeria experienced thirty years of military dictatorship, during which political and social values were deeply undermined.

Nigeria is a very complex and interesting state. Thus, unsurprisingly, ethno-religious fault lines soon emerged shortly after the country attained independence in , culminating in an unfortunate and possibly preventable civil war that lasted three long years, from , and claimed over a million lives. Since after the Civil War, Nigeria has attempted to build a sense of social cohesion and togetherness amongst its diverse populations. The graduates are often transferred to a region state other than theirs, to boost understanding of other cultures and lived experiences. Another attempt at national integration and peace is the introduction of peace and conflict studies in Nigerian universities and specialized institutions and this article explores the history of peace education in Nigeria.

Peace and conflict studies

Igbo , University of Nigeria - Nsukka Follow. Conflict in simple terms, means a state of disagreement, controversy or opposition. It could also mean the existence of a prolonged battle, struggle or clash between two or more parties. Obegi and Nyamboga , quoting Nicholas described conflict as situations where two people or groups wish to carry out acts which are mutually incompatible. In either case, conflict is generally characterized by a breach of peace or understanding among parties involved. Various dimensions to the causes of conflicts have been identified by writers. Namande , citing Donelson asserts that any factor that creates dissatisfaction can increase the chances of conflicts among people and this may include struggle for resources, egocentrism, ethnocentrism, bigotry, assertion, struggle for recognition, ignorance, pride and fear.

Nigerian history is replete with evidence of multidimensional conflicts escalating into violent crises, some of which can easily be traced to 1 the tensions, feuds, and series of expansionist wars of conquest and jihad by the precolonial communities that were amalgamated into the Nigerian state by the colonialists; 2 the dynamics of colonization and the nationalist activities that culminated into independence by ; 3 the unfortunate pattern of partisan politics during the first republic and subsequent attempts at democratization — and —present ; 4 the protracted military interregnum in politics and governance; 5 human rights violations and abuses; and more recently 6 marginalizations, unhealthy competition, and rivalries leading to self-determination struggles, ethnoreligious violence, communal and chieftaincy conflicts, partisan political violence, resource allocation, and control crises. Others include the shared experience of insecurity and injustices suffered daily by the citizenry as individuals, groups, or communities. These often lead to violent conflicts, arson, carnage, and destruction of infrastructure. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Peace education in Nigeria: imperative for conflicts resolution and economic recovery

So, All of authors and contributors must check their papers before submission to making assurance of following our anti-plagiarism policies. The paper dwells on the attainment of positive social change through sufficient design and teaching of peace education in Nigeria. The frequent crisis since after independence in the six geopolitical zones of the country presupposes absence of or lack of enough peace education. Ignorance of conflict resolution through dialogue is lacking in the consciousness of many Nigerians due to lack of proper information and training. The incidences of Niger Delta Militia, the kidnapping cases, the community clashes, the politically motivated crisis, the Boko Haram insurgency, among others in Nigeria show little or no peace education. Why Us?

Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts including social conflicts , with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition. This social science is in contrast to military studies , which has as its aim on the efficient attainment of victory in conflicts, primarily by violent means to the satisfaction of one or more, but not all, parties involved. Disciplines involved may include philosophy , political science , geography , economics , psychology , sociology , international relations , history , anthropology , religious studies , and gender studies , as well as a variety of others. Relevant sub-disciplines of such fields, such as peace economics , may be regarded as belonging to peace and conflict studies also. Peace and conflict studies is both a pedagogical activity, in which teachers transmit knowledge to students; and a research activity, in which researchers create new knowledge about the sources of conflict. Peace and conflict studies entails understanding the concept of peace which is defined as political condition that ensures justice and social stability through formal and informal institutions, practices, and norms.


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А ведь у нас в Третьем узле нет друг от друга секретов. Один за всех и все за одного. Сьюзан отпила глоток чая и промолчала. Хейл пожал плечами и направился к буфету. Буфет всегда был его первой остановкой.

Спускаясь по лестнице, она пыталась представить себе, какие еще неприятности могли ее ожидать. Ей предстояло узнать это совсем. ГЛАВА 2 На высоте тридцать тысяч футов, над застывшим внизу океаном, Дэвид Беккер грустно смотрел в крохотный овальный иллюминатор самолета Лирджет-60.

Не снижая скорости, мужчина указал Беккеру на двустворчатую дверь и скрылся за поворотом. Беккер последовал в указанном направлении. Он очутился в огромной комнате - бывшем гимнастическом зале. Бледно-зеленый пол мерцал в сиянии ламп дневного света, то попадая в фокус, то как бы проваливаясь. Лампы зловеще гудели.

 Самое разрушительное последствие - полное уничтожение всего банка данных, - продолжал Джабба, - но этот червь посложнее. Он стирает только те файлы, которые отвечают определенным параметрам. - Вы хотите сказать, что он не нападет на весь банк данных? - с надеждой спросил Бринкерхофф.

 У тебя хорошее чутье, - парировал Стратмор, - но есть кое-что. Я ничего не нашел на Северную Дакоту, поэтому изменил направление поиска. В записи, которую я обнаружил, фигурирует другое имя - N DAKOTA.

Он понимал, что мы могли решиться на это только в одном случае - если нашли Северную Дакоту. По спине Сьюзан пробежал холодок. - Конечно, - чуть слышно сказала.  - Танкадо подумал, что раз мы приостановили действие его страхового полиса, то можем приостановить и его .

What is Strategic Peacebuilding?


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    Peacebuilding is the development of constructive personal, group, and political relationships across ethnic, religious, class, national, and racial boundaries.