Breast Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

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breast anatomy and physiology pdf

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The breast is an organ whose structure reflects its special function: the production of milk for lactation breast feeding. The epithelial component of the tissue consists of lobules , where milk is made, which connect to ducts that lead out to the nipple. Most cancers of the breast arise from the cells which form the lobules and terminal ducts.

The breasts are specialised organs, which are located on the anterior chest wall. The female breast is more developed than the male breast, as their primary function is to produce milk for nutrition of the infant and baby. There are lots of glands in our breasts, which grow and develop during puberty and maturation. Female hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone are important in promoting growth and changes that occur in the breast, especially during pregnancy and the menstrual cycle. Lying in a superficial layer of our skin above our chest muscles, the mammary glands in our breast drain via many ducts to our nipples.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Breast

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The mammary gland is a distinguishing feature of mammals and its primary role is to produce milk to nourish offspring Figures 1. In humans, the breast has a multitude of further roles including being a major female sexual characteristic and a key part of female body image.

Breast anatomy. The breast lies over the pectoralis major, serratus anterior, and rectus abdominis muscles. Normal adult breast during reproductive years: photomicrograph shows a complete terminal duct lobular unit. A, terminal duct; B, lobules; C, surrounding nonspecialized stroma. The breast develops within the superficial fascia of the anterior chest wall. Prior to puberty, both in men and women, the breast consists only of a few ducts within a connective tissue stroma.

True breast development thelarche begins in females at puberty around the age of 10 years under the influence of oestrogen and progesterone. The breast is hemispherical in shape with an extension towards the axilla and becomes more pendulous with age. It extends from around the level of the second rib to seventh rib in the midclavicular line and from the lateral edge of the sternum to the midaxillary line.

It overlies the pectoralis major, serratus anterior, and rectus abdominis muscles. Strands of fibrous connective tissue Cooper's ligaments run from the skin overlying the breast to the underlying chest wall providing a supportive framework.

The breast contains 12—15 major breast ducts which drain to the nipple, connected to a series of branching ducts ending in the terminal duct lobular unit, the functional milk-producing unit of the breast. Breast ducts are lined by a layer of cuboidal cells surrounded by a network of myoepithelial cells supported by connective tissue stroma, and are embedded in a variable amount of fat.

The major subareolar breast ducts open on the surface of the nipple, which protrudes from the breast surface. The nipple and surrounding areola are variably pigmented and their skin is rich in smooth muscle fibres. During pregnancy, the terminal duct lobular units proliferate under the influence of increased levels of oestrogen, progesterone, and prolactin. Milk is produced as a result of secretion of prolactin and oxytocin from the pituitary in response to suckling.

Fluctuations in oestrogen and progesterone concentrations prior to and following the menopause result in atrophic changes to the glandular and connective tissue components of the breast. The nerve supply of the breast is in a segmental pattern Forgot Password? Otherwise it is hidden from view. Forgot Username? About MyAccess If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

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Breast Anatomy and Physiology

A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals that produces milk to feed young offspring. Mammals get their name from the Latin word mamma , "breast". The mammary glands are arranged in organs such as the breasts in primates for example, humans and chimpanzees , the udder in ruminants for example, cows, goats, and deer , and the dugs of other animals for example, dogs and cats. Lactorrhea , the occasional production of milk by the glands, can occur in any mammal, but in most mammals, lactation , the production of enough milk for nursing , occurs only in phenotypic females who have gestated in recent months or years. It is directed by hormonal guidance from sex steroids. In a few mammalian species, male lactation can occur.

Anatomy and physiology of the breast insights. From this recent study the earlier depictions of breast anatomy were proven inaccurate. The point needs to be made that anyone who has had their anatomy training between and needs a refresher course.. Anatomy and physiology of the breast ScienceDirect. Some of these structures do not fully develop until pregnancy and lactation and regress or involute after lactation and at menopause. The anatomy of the breast and axilla are important in oncological surgery and must be considered during surgical planning to ensure the proper treatment of breast cancer.


Check Pages 1 - 50 of FEMALE BREAST ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY in the flip PDF version. FEMALE BREAST ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY.


Anatomy and Physiology of the Breast

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The mammary gland is a distinguishing feature of mammals and its primary role is to produce milk to nourish offspring Figures 1. In humans, the breast has a multitude of further roles including being a major female sexual characteristic and a key part of female body image.

Overview of the Breast

The female breast covers a fairly large area. It extends from just below the collarbone clavicle , to the armpit axilla and across to the breastbone sternum. The breast is a mass of glandular, fatty, and fibrous tissues and contains no muscle tissue A layer of fat surrounds the gland and extends throughout the breast The fatty tissue gives the breast a soft consistency.

Breast Anatomy and Physiology

Management of Breast Diseases pp Cite as. This chapter is a review of the development, structure and function of the normal human breast. It is meant to serve as a backdrop and reference for the chapters that follow on pathologies and treatment. It presents an overview of normal gross anatomy, histology, and hormonal regulation of the breast followed by a discussion of its structural and functional changes from embryonic development through postmenopausal involution. This section includes recent data on some of the hormones, receptors, growth factors, transcription factors and genes that regulate this amazing nutritive organ. Unable to display preview.

Breast Disease pp Cite as. Breast development begins in the 5th and 6th weeks of fetal development and continues through puberty. Errors during development can lead to abnormal development or complete failure of breast development. The breast comprises several structures that are both functional and supportive. Some of these structures do not fully develop until pregnancy and lactation and regress or involute after lactation and at menopause.

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The mammary gland is a distinguishing feature of mammals and its primary role is to produce milk to nourish offspring Figures 1. In humans, the breast has a multitude of further roles including being a major female sexual characteristic and a key part of female body image. Breast anatomy.

Overview of the Breast

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  1. Plupconbeschho 29.05.2021 at 07:55

    PDF | The mammary gland is an organ of ectodermal origin whose structure reflects its function: the production of milk for lactation. In humans.