# Liquid Drop Model And Shell Model Pdf

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- Shell model versus liquid drop model for strangelets.
- Semi-empirical mass formula
- Liquid-drop model
- Nuclear Physics

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Liquid-drop model , in nuclear physics , a description of atomic nuclei in which the nucleons neutrons and protons behave like the molecules in a drop of liquid. If given sufficient extra energy as by the absorption of a neutron , the spherical nucleus may be distorted into a dumbbell shape and then split at the neck into two nearly equal fragments, releasing energy. Although inadequate to explain all nuclear phenomena, the theory underlying the model provides excellent estimates of average properties of nuclei. Russian-born American physicist George Gamow formulated the model in , and Austrian physicists Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch used it in to explain nuclear fission.

## Shell model versus liquid drop model for strangelets.

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## Semi-empirical mass formula

This theory is based on the liquid drop model proposed by George Gamow. According to this model, the atomic nucleus behaves like the molecules in a drop of liquid. But in this nuclear scale, the fluid is made of nucleons protons and neutrons , which are held together by the strong nuclear force. The liquid drop model of the nucleus takes into account the fact that the nuclear forces on the nucleons on the surface are different from those on nucleons in the interior of the nucleus. The interior nucleons are completely surrounded by other attracting nucleons. Here is the analogy with the forces that form a drop of liquid.

Figure shows the energy levels predicted by the shell model using The Liquid Drop Model of the Nucleus. In the the Liquid Drop.

## Liquid-drop model

In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry , the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels. Gapon in The model was developed in following independent work by several physicists, most notably Eugene Paul Wigner , Maria Goeppert Mayer and J.

### Nuclear Physics

Fundamentals In Nuclear Physics pp Cite as. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Additional pages are accessible via the navigation bar on top.. The topics discussed in Nuclear Science and Technology I or II are selected from the following list which covers the materials for a more extensive, two-semester nuclear science course. The place holders in the list of topics will in due time be replaced by the actual presentation files. Electronic lecture presentations can be downloaded in various formats if marked by colored links. Videos and animations are available in avi, mpeg or wmv formats. Audio cuts of lectures are not available.

An a - cluster model of nuclear structure based on power of proton+neutron (pn)-pairs to bind themselves to a - clusters is proposed. The a - cluster is taken as.

It is shown that a consistent treatment of nuclear bulk and surface effects leads to an improved version of the liquid-drop mass formula with modified symmetry and Coulomb terms. If in addition shell effects are modelled through the counting of the number of valence nucleons, a very simple mass formula is obtained with an rms deviation from the database of atomic masses of about keV. A similar description of nuclear radii is suggested with specific reference to the neutron skin.

*Collective model , also called unified model , description of atomic nuclei that incorporates aspects of both the shell nuclear model and the liquid-drop model to explain certain magnetic and electric properties that neither of the two separately can explain. In the shell model, nuclear energy levels are calculated on the basis of a single nucleon proton or neutron moving in a potential field produced by all the other nucleons.*

Sayyad Nagoorvali. Samit Kr. This project consists of a study of basic nuclear models, such as Liquid Drop Model, Shell Model and the Nilsson model for nuclei with different shapes at the ground state. The Liquid drop model of a nucleus is aid in the calculation of the nuclear binding energy. This model assumes that the ground state of nucleus is spherical.

*But in this nuclear scale, the fluid is made of nucleons protons and neutrons. Liquid drop model takes into account the fact that the forces on the nucleons on the surface are different from those on nucleons on the interior where they are completely surrounded by other attracting nucleons. This is something similar to taking account of surface tension as a contributor to the energy of a tiny liquid drop.*

As the name suggests, it is based partly on theory and partly on empirical measurements. The formula represents the liquid drop model proposed by George Gamow , [1] which can account for most of the terms in the formula and gives rough estimates for the values of the coefficients. The formula gives a good approximation for atomic masses and thereby other effects.

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